DEBUT
Dernière mise à jour : 09 avril  2024


SPECIES LARVA (1) LARVA (2) PUPA

Anasimyia contracta Claussen & Torp, 1980 larva undescribed, but can be found among debris of dead Typha stalks beneath the water surface.

Anasimyia femorata Simić, 1987

not described.

Anasimyia interpuncta (Harris), 1776

not described.

Anasimyia lineata (Fabricius), 1787
larva described and figured by Hartley (1961) and illustrated in colour (apparently from a preserved specimen) in Rotheray (1994); aquatic, microphagous, in rotting plant debris just below the water surface. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).


Eurimyia lineata (Fabricius), 1787@

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1994)

Hartley (1961) and Dolezil (1972)


Bagachanova (1990)


Hartley (1961)

Hartley (1961)


Bagachanova (1990)
Anasimyia lunulata (Meigen), 1822 the larva requires redescription - Hartley's (1961) account may refer to the larva of A. interpuncta, or may be based on both A.interpuncta and A.lunulata.

Dolezil_1972: after Hartley (1961)

Anasimyia transfuga (Linnaeus), 1758

it is not known whether the larva ascribed to this species by Hartley (1961) is that of A. transfuga or A.contracta.

Dolezil_1972: after Hartley (1961)




Rotheray, G.E. & Gilbert, F.S. (1999)



Arctosyrphus willingii (Smith), 1912 the larva is described by Bagachanova (1990), who observed that A.willingii oviposits into the ground among grass roots and established that larval development occurs in the spring, in shallow water enriched with organic material and in swamp hummocks. Pupariation occurs under natural conditions in May/June, the species remaining in the puparium for 9-10 days



Bagachanova (1990)





Bagachanova (1990)

Bagachanova (1990)

Baccha elongata (Fabricius), 1775 eggs described and figured by Chandler (1968); larva and puparium described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1960b) and Goeldlin (1974) and larva figured in colour and differentiated from other related genera in the keys provided by Rotheray (1994); aphid- feeding, on tall herbs, e.g. thistles (Cirsium), bushes and trees. Dussaix (2005a) reared the species from larvae found on Aquilegia, Digitalis, Euphorbia, Hieracium, Hypochaeris, Sambucus nigra and Sonchus. Dussaix (2013) provides coloured photos of the last instar larva and the puparium. The puparial phase lasts approximately 10 days in this species and the larva overwinters (Dussaix, 2013).

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Dussaix, 2013


Dusek & Laska (1960b)

Dusek & Laska (1960b)


Rotheray & Gilbert (1989) // Scott  (1939)



Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974



Rotheray & Gilbert  (1989)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974



Dussaix, 2013


Blera eoa (Stackelberg), 1928 not described.

Blera fallax (Linnaeus), 1758
larva and puparium described and figured by Rotheray and Stuke (1998) from material found in wet, heart-rot trunk cavities in cut stumps of Pinus sylvestris. These cavities can evidently persist in stumps for a number of years, in a condition usable by this species (Rotheray and MacGowan, 2000). Rotheray (2013) observed that as water in a rot-hole reaches a temperature at which it freezes, the larva of B.fallax emerges from the water and remains on the side of the rot-hole. or on the water surface. Rotheray (2013) also presents evidence that resource partitioning between larvae of B.fallax, Callicera rufa, Myathropa florea and Sphegina clunipes reduces the likelyhood of competition between them, when they occur in the same rot-hole. Under favourable conditions, Rotheray (2013) found that larvae can complete development within one year, reaching maturity by the onset of winter and then leaving the rot-hole, apparently passing the winter in diapause, to pupate the following spring. Maximum rates of development were found when pine sawdust was added to rot-hole content. This would imply that, under natural conditions, water-filled tree-holes into which comminuted wood fragements are raining down from above, e.g. as a consequence of the activities of the larvae of saproxylic Coleoptera, would provide better conditions for B.fallax larvae than rot-holes in stumps remaining from tree-felling activities. Rotheray et al (2016) show that food resource availability within the tree holes is limiting to larval growth, but that, even when food supply is not limiting, approximately 20% of larvae take 2 years to develop. Larvae of two North American Blera species are described and figured by Greene (1923), who also found them (in frass) in rotting stumps. The larva of B.fallax has also been found in a water-filled tree-hole by Dusek and Laska (1961). Occurrence of B.fallax in Picea forest from which Pinus is absent, in central Europe, indicates that this syrphid can develop in rot-holes in Picea, as well as hol-holes in Pinus.



Rotheray & Rotheray, 2012



Rotheray et Stuke, 1998

Rotheray et Stuke, 1998


Dusek & Laska (1961) // Rotheray & Rotheray, 2012
Blera nitens (Stackelberg), 1923  not described.


Brachyopa atlantea Kassebeer, 2000 described and figured by Kassebeer (2000), from larvae found in a sap-run on Populus. This species apparently has a larval diapause of some 10 months.



Kassebeer (2000)


Kassebeer (2000)

Brachyopa bicolor (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991), Krivosheina (2005) and Pérez-Bañón et al (2016) and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994), from larvae collected from sap runs on the trunks of Fagus and Quercus. A coloured photo of the puparium is provided by Dussaix (2013). Krivosheina (2005) found the larvae in sap runs on Ulmus and Abies. The larvae were also recorded from Populus alba attacked by Cossus cossus, by Torp (1984) and from sap runs on Aesculus. Nielsen (2005) reports that this species has been hatched (together with B.obscura) from the "bark of a pear (Pyrus) tree". Dussaix (2005a) notes that the sap runs on Populus from which he reared B.bicolor were apparently caused by the bark-damaging activities of deer. This species may also be associated with Castanea (Ricarte et al, 2014). The larva overwinters in this species, with puparial formation occurring February to May and duration of the puparial phase is 3.5 weeks (Dussaix, 2013).

Rotheray (1994)


Pérez-Bañón et al (2016)

 

Krivosheina (2005)


Rotheray (1991)

Krivosheina (2005)


Dussaix, 2013
Brachyopa bimaculosa Doczkal & Dziock, 2004 not described.

Brachyopa cinerea Wahlberg, 1844 not described.

Brachyopa cruriscutum van Steenis and van Steenis, 2014 not described.

Brachyopa dorsata Zetterstedt, 1837 larva described and figured by Krivosheina (2005) from larvae collected in the bast of Betula trunks (many records), from the tunnels of Lymexylonidae in tunks of Betula and Ulmus and from Populus. This species has also been reared from larvae collected from under the bark of a rotting, fungus-infested Ulmus stump and from under bark on stumps of other trees, including Fagus, Picea and Quercus. Larvae have also been found in tunnels of lymexylonid beetles in wood of Betula and Ulmus by Bagachanova (1990). Mutin (1998b) reared the species from larvae collected under the bark of Populus species, including P.tremula.


 

Krivosheina (2005)


Krivosheina (2005)

Brachyopa grunewaldensis Kassebeer, 2000 not described, but B. grunewaldensis has been collected from emergence traps over trunk cavities in Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus faginea and Q. pyrenaica (Ricarte et al, 2013). Sánchez-Galván et al (2014) provide information suggesting that a pre-requisite for development of larvae of B. grunewaldensis in a trunk cavity may be the presence there of larvae of saproxylic beetles, exemplified by the Iberian cetoniid Cetonia aurataeformis, whose faeces are known to be rich in accessible nutrients (Micó et al, 2011); females have also been observed flying round the trunk of large Quercus cerris inhabited by the trunk-cavity ant Liometopum microcephalum.
Brachyopa insensilis Collin, 1939 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991) and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994), Schmid (1996) and Bartsch et al (2009a). The latter authors also provide a coloured photo of the puparium. Larvae occur in sap runs, and less frequently in rot-holes (where internal sap-runs are present?) on the trunks of living deciduous and coniferous trees. The species has been reared from larvae in damp tree-humus in a rot-hole in the trunk of a large, live Acer pseudoplatanus (MS), from sap-runs and goat moth (Cossus) tunnels in Quercus, from behind loose bark, in a pocket of sappy water on the trunk of live Acer monspecellanus (MS), from sap-runs on Aesculus (Sjuts, 2004), Alnus glutinosa (van Steenis et al, 2001) and Abies alba (Schmid and Grossmann, 1996b; Dussaix, 2005a) and Fagus (Krivosheina, 2005). Adults have also been found visiting sap runs on Tilia (Ball and Morris, 2000; T.Gittings, pers.comm.), which probably also provides appropriate conditions for the larvae. Recent literature suggests that B.insensilis is also associated with Ulmus. This species overwinters as a larva (Dussaix, 2013).

 

Dussaix, 2013

Rotheray (1991) // Krivosheina (2005)


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Rotheray (1991)


Dussaix, 2013

Bartsch et al (2009)

Brachyopa maculipennis Thompson, 1980 not described. Van Steenis et al (2019) report observations of B. maculipennis on sap runs on Populus alba and Salix alba. Large numbers of B. maculipennis are also reported on sap runs on Populus alba by Mielczarek et al, (2019) Pas présent dans références biblio). A female has been observed ovipositing close to a sap-run on the trunk of an old, living Populus alba (P. Trzciński, pers. comm.), showing evidence of Cossus infestation. The sesiid moth Sesia apiformis was also present at this location. The larvae of both Sesia apiformis and Cossus cossus tunnel just beneath the bark, in the process damaged the vascular system of the tree, resulting in accumulations of fermenting sap in their workings. If Brachyopa maculipennis requires not only sap runs on old Populus alba or Salix alba, but also has some dependence on a commensal relationship with Cossus and or Sesia larvae, to provide sap runs in an appropriate condition for its larvae, that could account for the apparent rarity of B. maculipennis. Both Cossus and Sesia species are regarded as pests of commercial forestry.
Brachyopa minima Vujić & Pérez-Bañón, in Pérez-Bañón et al, 2016
Pérez-Bañón et al (2016) found the larvae in sap runs on the trunk of a living Populus nigra and provide detailed description and photos of the larva. In this species the larva can evidently withstand prolonged dessication (Pérez-Bañón et al, 2016). 




Pérez-Bañón et al (2016)

Pérez-Bañón et al (2016)

Brachyopa obscura Thompson and Torp, 1982 not described. Stuke (2001) suggests this species may be associated with Populus nigra and it shows an association with P.tremula in Finland and Sweden (S.Kerppola and H.Bartsch, pers.comm.). Nielsen (2005) reports that this species has been hatched from the "bark of a pear (Pyrus) tree". Wakkie et al (2011) suggest B. obscura is associated with Populus tremula and its hybrids. The curiously small number of widely scattered records of this insect south of Scandinavia imply that some factor, other than presence of overmature trees of small Populus species within wet woodland, may be required to support it.

Brachyopa panzeri Goffe, 1945

undescribed. This species has been reared from a larva collected from a slime-flux on a Fagus stump, by Stuke and Schulz (2001). Krivosheina (2005) describes and figures the larva of a Brachyopa believed to be of this species, stating “No adult was reared from larvae of this species. However, as the larvae have been found in a fir stub together with larvae of B.vittata Zett., and adult of only these two species have been recorded in the area, I refer these larvae to B.panzeri”. This species may also be associated with Castanea (Ricarte et al, 2014).


© Leif Bloss Carstensen

Krivosheina (2005)


Brachyopa pilosa Collin, 1939 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991) from larvae collected from beneath the bark of a rotting stump of Fagus. Rotheray (1994) has also found the larva of this species in association with sap runs on Fagus, Populus and Quercus. Krivosheina (2005) describes and figures the larva of this species from larvae collected a fallen trunk of Populus tremula, sap in a Betula stump and a sap run on Fagus. It is figured in colour by Rotheray (1994).


Pérez-Bañón et al (2016) Brachyopa sp. aff. pilosa

Krivosheina (2005)


Rotheray (1991)


Krivosheina (2005)
Brachyopa plena Collin, 1939 not described.


Brachyopa quadrimaculosa Thompson, 1981 not described.

Brachyopa scutellaris Robineau-Desvoidy, 1843 the larva develops in sap-runs on Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus and Ulmus glabra and in sappy, wet-rot situations beneath the bark of Alnus, Fraxinus, Populus tremula etc.; described and figured by Rotheray (1996). According to Pellmann (1998), B.scutellaris has also been reared from Taxus and Ulmus. This species has also been found flying in numbers round the trunk base of an oak (Q.robur) showing extensive damage by Cossus, including weeping bark lesions. This species may also be associated with Castanea (Ricarte et al, 2014).

Rotheray (1996)

Rotheray (1996)


Brachyopa silviae Doczkal & Dziock, 2004

undescribed. Van Steenis et al (2019) report this species has been observed close to a sap run on the trunk of Carpinus betulus, which suggests it may be associated with this tree. 

Brachyopa testacea (Fallen), 1817

undescribed, but the species has been reared from larvae collected from beneath bark of rotting Picea stumps (Nielsen, 1992). 

Brachyopa vernalis van Steenis and van Steenis, 2014 not described.

Brachyopa vittata Zetterstedt, 1843 larva described and figured by Krivosheina (2005), from larvae found in tunnels of lymexylonid beetles in stumps of Abies, and also from under the bark of Abies and Larix stumps. Kassebeer (1993) also reared the species from Picea stumps.


 

Krivosheina (2005)


Krivosheina (2005)

Brachyopa zhelochovtsevi Mutin, 1998 not described.


Brachypalpoides lentus (Meigen), 1822
larva undescribed, but the species has been bred from damp, fungus-riddled rotten wood within the trunk base of an old, living Fagus and is included in the keys provided by Rotheray (1994), where it is distinguished from larvae of related genera and its fore body is figured. B.lentus larvae have also been found beneath the bark of Picea, by Kassebeer (1993).
+ Rotheray et Stuke, 1998


© Leif Bloss Carstensen

Rotheray (1994) // Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999)

Rotheray et Stuke, 1998

Rotheray et Stuke, 1998


Rotheray et Stuke, 1998

© Leif Bloss Carstensen

© Leif Bloss Carstensen

Face ventrale
© Leif Bloss Carstensen

Brachypalpus chrysites Egger, 1859 larva described and figured by Schmid and Moertelmaier (2007), from larvae reared to last instar in a mixture of damp rotten wood of Acer, Alnus and Picea, into which a captive female laid eggs.


Schmid & Moertelmaier (2007)


Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fallen), 1816 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991) and illustrated in colour (apparently from a preserved larva) by Rotheray (1994), from a larva collected from exudates of a rot-hole in the trunk of Taxus and another from sappy water in a sub-bark cavity on the trunk of a live Quercus. From the habits of the adults, it is likely that the larvae of B.laphriformis might also be found in association with Acer, Castanea and Prunus. According to Bartsch et al (2009b), this species may be associated with Pinus in Sweden.

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray (1994) //  Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999)

Rotheray (1991)


Brachypalpus valgus (Panzer), 1798 larva described and figured by Dusek and Laska (1988), from larvae collected from a wet fissure in the trunk of Alnus glutinosa. This species has also been reared from a trunk cavity if Quercus suber (J. -P. Sarthou, pers.comm.).










Dusek & Laska (1988)

Dusek & Laska (1988)

Dusek & Laska (1988)


Dusek & Laska (1988)


Caliprobola speciosa (Rossi), 1790 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994), from larvae collected from wet, decaying roots of Fagus stumps. It has also been reared from larvae collected from Fagus and Quercus pedunculata stumps/roots/rot-holes by other authors. For instance, Dussaix (2005a) reared the species from material in a moist, trunk-base cavity in Quercus. Distinguished from larvae of related genera in the keys provided by Rotheray (1994). A coloured photo of the puparium is provided by Dussaix (2013) who also confirms that overwintering of this species occurs as a larva.

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1991)


Rotheray (1991)


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Rotheray & Gilbert, 2011


Dusek & Laska (1961)


Dussaix, 2013

Callicera aenea (Fabricius), 1777 not described, but this species has been seen emerging from a small tree hole in Acer campestre (G. Popov, pers. comm.).

Callicera aurata (Rossi), 1790

larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991), from larvae collected from a rot-hole high (18m above ground) in an old Fagus in ancient forest. The general appearance of the larva and puparium is shown in the coloured photos provided by Dussaix (2013). Dussaix (2005a) reared the species from small, water-filled cavities in Fagus and Quercus. Reared from rot-holes in Fraxinus angustifolia by Ricarte (2008). Distinguished from larvae of some related species in the key provided by Rotheray and Perry (1994). Dussaix (2013) records that the puparial phase lasts nearly 3 weeks and confirms that overwintering occurs as a larva.



Dussaix, 2013

Rotheray & Perry (1994)


Rotheray (1991)


Dussaix, 2013

Callicera fagesii Guerin-Meneville, 1844

larva unknown, but possibly associated with waterside trees like Alnus, Fraxinus, Populus or Salix. The female of this species has been seen ovipositing on the trunk of a large Populus showing lesions on its trunk (W.Renema, pers.comm.) and in small, water-containing rot-holes in the trunk of an old, live, river-edge Fraxinus ornus (M. de C. Williams, pers. comm.).

Callicera macquarti Rondani, 1844

larva not described, but reared from rot-holes in overmature Quercus rotundifolia by Ricarte et al (2008).



Callicera rufa Schummel, 1842

= Callicera yerburyi
larva described and figured by Coe (1938); puparium described by Coe (1939), from larvae collected from deep, standing-water tree-holes in old, living Pinus sylvestris. Rotheray (2013) observed that as water in a rot-hole reaches a temperature at which it freezes, the larva of C. rufa emerges from the water and remains on the side of the rot-hole. or on the water surface. The larva is illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). Development can apparently take 1-3 years. MacGowan (1994) also reports rearing this species from a standing-water rot-hole in a mature Larix, and shows that cutting artificial rot-holes in living P.sylvestris can provide sites in which C.rufa can develop successfully. Rotheray and McGowan (2000) add that they have found larvae in the wet, decaying heartwood of a Picea stump and provide further detail on the larval microhabitat. MacGowan and Rotheray (2007) record use by C.rufa of plastic tubs containing pine sawdust and chips, as sites for larval development sites, when these tubs are placed in localities where the species occurs. They also note that rot-holes with a capacity of less than 1 litre are noticeably susceptible to drying out resulting in death of the developmental stages of C.rufa, and that rot-holes found to contain larvae in the autumn may be without larvae the following spring, so that finding larvae in a rot-hole in the autumn is not necessarily evidence that development can be completed in that rot hole. Rotheray (2013) observed that C. rufa larvae characteristically occur around the mid-depth of a rot-hole’s volume and, because they lack an extendable respiratory tube, require to visit the water surface 2 – 3 times each hour for respiratory purposes. When the water in a rot-hole begins to freeze, Callicera rufa larvae have been observed to come to the water surface, to rest on the ice, rather than remaining in the frozen water (Rotheray, 2013). The larva of C.rufa is distinguished from larvae of some related species in the key provided by Rotheray and Perry (1994).

+ Hartley (1961)

Rotheray (1994)


Dixon, 1960
 
Reemer et al (2009)

Rotheray & Perry (1994)

   
Rotheray (1991) // Dusek & Laska (1960a) 
          
Coe (1938)

Hartley (1961)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999) // Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Callicera spinolae Rondani, 1844 larvae of this species have been reared from rot-holes in living Populus (Zimina, 1986) and Fagus (Rotheray, 1994, Dussaix, 1996). It has also been reared from rot-holes in ancient, living Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus faginea, by Ricarte et al (2008). Dussaix (2005a) also reports rearing this species from a small trunk cavity in live Betula. Ball et al (2011) cite Acer campestre and Aesculus as host trees. Further, this species has been reared from a larva collected from a cavity in the trunk of an ancient, live tree of Quercus suber (Dussaix, pers.comm.). The larvae usually require more than one year in which to complete development and are known to inhabit the heart-rot of the trunk of living trees, so that they may be located deep within the tree. The larva is described and figured by Rotheray and Perry (1994), who also provide a key distinguishing C.spinolae larvae from larvae of some related species. The general appearance of the puparium is shown in the coloured photo provided by Dussaix (2013), who also confirms that the larva overwinters.

Rotheray & Perry (1994)

 

Rotheray & Perry (1994)


Dussaix, 2013

Ceriana conopsoides (L.), 1758 larva in sap runs and damp tree-holes of deciduous trees, notably Populus and Ulmus. The only available description is that of Dufour (1847), who found the larva in sappy exudate on Ulmus. Ahnlund (pers.comm.) has captured females of this species in small traps attached to a high stump of Populus tremula and to a burnt, but still living Betula, suggesting C.conopsoides may be associated with these trees. An adult female has also been seen investigating the trunk of an old, lving Quercus pubescens, apparently searching for oviposition sites.


Dufour (1847)


Ceriana glaebosa van Steenis & Ricarte, in van Steenis et al, 2016 not described. There is circumstantial evidence to suggest that the developmental stages of this species may be associated with old/storm-damaged Cupressus sempervirens (A. van Eck, pers.comm.). 

Ceriana vespiformis (Latreille), 1804 larva figured and described by Rotheray et al (2006), from larvae found in "decaying roots of a live Fraxinus aungustifolius tree". Females have also been seen investigating holes in rotten parts of an ancient, live Quercus pubescens, and Sack (1928-32) states, without quoting the reference involved, that Efflatoun found the larvae of this species in a sap-run on Morus alba. The female has been observed ovipositing at the edge of a trunk cavity in an ancient Fraxinus sp in Portugal, by Van Eck (pers. comm.).



Rotheray et al. (2006)

Rotheray et al. (2006)


Rotheray et al. (2006)


Chalcosyrphus eumerus (Loew), 1869

not described. 

Chalcosyrphus eunotus Loew, 1873 the puparium has been described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1992), from a larva reared from a container of artificial medium (wet sawdust) placed beside a stream in Fraxinus woodland. Jukes (A.Jukes, pers.comm. and Jukes, 2010) has observed oviposition on (and in cracks and crannies of) the bark of small Alnus and Betula logs (c5cm diameter and less than 1m long) in dappled sunlight, partially submerged in water, on the margin of a small stream within riverine gallery woodland. The eggs apparently took 2-4 weeks to hatch. On hatching, the larvae were observed to make their way into the wood of the log, rather than remaining just under the bark, and there they made tunnels in the wood. The wood of the water-sodden Betula logs concerned was fibrous and white. Two or three larvae were found aggregated within the same tunnel. No larvae were found in wood submerged in water.


Jukes, 2009

Jukes, 2009

 

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1992



Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1992
Chalcosyrphus femoratus (L.), 1758 larva undescribed, but found by Krivosheina (2001) in "wood dust" in Betula and in rotten wood of Betula. Association of C. femoratus with stands of Populus alba and P. canescens (a naturally occurring, fertile hybrid between P. alba and P. tremula) along rivers and in wet areas within Quercus robur forest, suggests C. femoratus may also develop in the rotten wood of these poplar species. Populus canescens has both a growth form and bark very simlar to Betula, making fallen, dead trees of these species difficult to distinguish from one another.
Chalcosyrphus jacobsoni (Stackelberg), 1921 not described.

Chalcosyrphus nemorum (Fabricius), 1805
larva described and figured by Hartley (1961); occurs beneath bark of water-sodden deciduous timber, stumps and in damp tree rot-holes in deciduous trees, such as Betula, Fagus, Populus, Quercus, Salix and Ulmus. Also recorded from under the bark of stumps of Larix and Pinus and from a water-sodden Larix trunk lying partly in the water (Bagachanova, 1990). Jukes (A.Jukes, pers.comm.) has observed oviposition on Salix and Betula logs, in a log-jam of partially submerged timber across a small river in riverine gallery forest. The larva overwinters and the puparial phase lasts 10 days (Dussaix, 2013).

Dussaix (site web)


Stammer, 1933

Rotheray (1994) // Heiss, 1938


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999) // Hartley (1961)


Heiss, 1938 // Hennig, 1952

Hartley (1963)

Hartley (1961)

Heiss, 1938


Dussaix (site web)

Coe, 1953


Chalcosyrphus nigripes (Zetterstedt), 1838 not described, but the species was reared by Bagachanova (1990), from larvae collected from under the bark of Larix stumps and logs. The species evidently overwinters as a larva. 

Chalcosyrphus nitidus (Portschinsky), 1879 larva figured and included in the key provided by Krivosheina (2001), who found it always in the galleries of other insects (e.g. Temnostoma spp.) in fallen, rotten wood of Alnus, Tilia and Ulmus. By contrast, Bagachanova (1990) reports rearing this species from larvae found in the bast (phloem) of Pinus and Larix trunks.


Chalcosyrphus obscurus (Szilady), 1939 not described.

Chalcosyrphus pannonicus (Oldenberg), 1916  not described.

Chalcosyrphus piger (Fabricius), 1794 larva and puparium described by Heiss (1938), from sappy hollows beneath bark of Pinus. Both larva and puparium of this species are figured in colour by Bartsch et al (2009a). Perris (1870) records finding the larvae under bark on the trunk of Pinus pinaster, in wet tree humus formed from the frass of Ips and Acanthocinus. The female has been observed ovipositing in weeping hollows in bark, caused by woodpecker activity, on the lower trunk of moribund Pinus uncinata. Krivosheina (2001) reports rearing this species from under the bark of Larix and "Siberian cedar". Bagachanova (1990) similarly reports rearing C.piger from larvae collected from the bast of stumps and trunks of Larix and Pinus, in this instance the trunks being of young trees that had fallen and were lying partly in water. Bagachanova (l.c.) adds that the larvae overwinter under the bark and that the species remains in the puparium for approximately two weeks.


Bartsch et al (2009a

Heiss, 1938


Bartsch et al (2009a)
Chalcosyrphus rufipes (Loew), 1873


larva described and figured by Krivosheina (2001), from larvae found in workings of other insects, in rotten wood under the bark of old trunks and in moist tree-holes of Populus and Tilia.

Krivosheina (2001) = sans figure

Chalcosyrphus valgus (Gmelin), 1790 larva described and figured by Schmid and Moertelmaier (2007), from larvae reared to last instar in a mixture of damp rotten wood of Acer, Alnus and Picea, to which eggs laid by a captive female were added. There is strong circumstantial evidence to indicate that the larvae of C. valgus can develop in damaged trunks of Populus alba (L. Mielczarek, pers. comm.).



Schmid & Moertelmaier (2007)


Bartsch, Ståhls & Kerppola, 2010


Schmid & Moertelmaier (2007)

Bartsch, Ståhls & Kerppola, 2010

Cheilosia aerea Dufour, 1848 larva undescribed, but reared by Dufour (1848) from among decaying leaves of Verbascum pulverulentum. Doczkal (1996b) reports specimens bred from Verbascum nigrum and females observed ovipositing on Verbascum densiflorum.


Dufour (1848)

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Dufour (1848)

Cheilosia ahenea (von Roser), 1840

undescribed

Cheilosia alba Vujic & Claussen, 2000

undescribed

Cheilosia albipila Meigen, 1838 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a), from specimens collected from Cirsium palustre in pastures. The larva is a stem miner in Carduus and Cirsium palustre, and becomes full-grown by the autumn. It is shown in colour, within its stem mine, by Bartsch et al (2009a) and Dussaix (2013). This species overwinters as a puparium. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). The general appearance of the puparium is shown in the coloured photo provided by Dussaix (2013).

Dussaix (site web)


Ball, Morris & Stubbs, 2008

Bartsch et al (2009)

Rotheray (1988a)


Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Ball, Morris & Stubbs, 2008 // Stuke, 2000

Dussaix (site web)
Cheilosia albitarsis (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991), from larvae collected from rootstock of Ranunculus (probably R.repens: G.Rotheray, pers.comm.) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). The specimens reared by Rotheray proved all to be females (G. Rotheray, pers.comm.), so it is not certain that the larval description dependent upon them (Rotheray, 1994) is of the larvae of C.albitarsis. However, re-examination of all adult material collected, from the Scottish localities where larvae were found, has established that they all belong to C.albitarsis (G.Rotheray, pers.comm.), and according to Gibbs and Plant (2001) C.ranunculi is not known in Britain from further north than central England, so it remains extremely probable that the larvae described under the name C.albitarsis by Rotheray (1994) are indeed the larvae of that species.

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1991)

Rotheray (1991)


Cheilosia alpestris Becker, 1894

not described. 

Cheilosia alpina (Zetterstedt), 1838
not described, but Bartsch et al (299b), provide information suggesting that larval development occurs in Angelica. 

Cheilosia andalusiaca Torp Pedersen, 1971

undescribed

Cheilosia angustigenis Becker, 1894

not described

Cheilosia antiqua (Meigen), 1822 described and figured by Rotheray (1991) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); known to feed within the roots of various Primula species.

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray (1991)


Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia aristata Barkalov and Ståhls, 1997

not described.

Cheilosia balkana Vujic, 1994  not described.

Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković, in Vujić et al, 2013b  not described.

Cheilosia barbata Loew, 1857

not described.

Cheilosia beckeri Strobl, 1910  not described.

Cheilosia bergenstammi Becker, 1894 the larva is an internal feeder in stems of Senecio, especially S.jacobaea, but probably also in other species, e.g. S.palustris, S.erucifolia; described and figured by Smith (1979).

Smith (1979)


Smith (1979)

Smith (1979)



Smith (1979)



Smith (1979)

Cheilosia brachysoma Egger, 1860 undescribed

Cheilosia bracusi Vujic & Claussen, 1994

undescribed

Cheilosia brunnipennis Becker, 1894

undescribed

Cheilosia caerulescens (Meigen), 1822 the larva is undescribed, but d'Aguilar and Coutin (1988) reared the species from larvae found in the fleshy leaves of Sempervivum, where they were causing lesions.

d'Aguilar & Coutin (1988)


Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000


Cheilosia canicularis (Panzer), 1801 the larva is undescribed, but has been reared from Petatites hybridus (Stuke and Claussen, 2000). It is uncertain whether this species overwinters as larva or puparium.



Stuke, 2000. Cheilosia cf. canicularis (PANZER, 1801)

Stuke, 2000. Cheilosia cf. canicularis (PANZER, 1801)

Stuke, 2000. Cheilosia cf. canicularis (PANZER, 1801)

Cheilosia carbonaria Egger, 1860

undescribed

Cheilosia chloris (Meigen), 1822

the larva is undescribed, but the female has been observed egg-laying on Cirsium oleraceum (Doczkal, 1996b), and the larval association with that plant was confirmed by Stuke (2000). 




Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia chrysocoma (Meigen), 1822

larva undescribed, but the adult female has repeatedly been observed (Doczkal, 1996b) egg-laying on Angelica sylvestris, providing strong evidence that this is a larval host plant. Bagachanova (1990) reports rearing this species from a Chinese umbellifer (Cnidium). 

Cheilosia circassica Ståhls & Barkalov, 2017 not described. 

Cheilosia clama Claussen & Vujic, 1995

not described.

Cheilosia clausseni Barkalov and Ståhls, 1997

not described.

Cheilosia crassiseta Loew, 1859

not described.

Cheilosia cumanica Szilady, 1938  not described.

Cheilosia cynocephala Loew, 1840

larva described by Dusek and Laska (1962). It evidently mines the stems of Carduus nutans. Ball et al (2011) indicate the species is also associated with Carduus crispus.

Dusek and Laska (1962)_pas cette espèce.+


Cheilosia derasa Loew, 1857

not described.






Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia fasciata Schiner & Egger, 1853 the larva mines the leaves of Allium ursinum and A.victorialis. The final instar larva may move from one leaf to another if its food supply becomes exhausted; larva figured by Dusek and Laska (1962) and illustrated in colour by Schmid (1996); larval biology described by Nielsen (1979). Detailed biological information on the development of this species is provided by Hövemeyer (1992). The egg and larval stages together take 8 weeks, after which pupariation takes place in the soil in the vicinity of the host plant. The species overwinters as a puparium, usually within the top 3cm of the soil. This insect is more easily recorded as a larva than as an adult, the larval mines being very distinctive and obvious when the larvae are maturing in A.ursinum leaves in May. Schmid and Grossmann (1998) contrast the life history details of populations associated with A.ursinum (low altitude) and A.victorialis (high altitude) in central Europe. De Groot and Kogoj (2015) observe that, within the altitudinal range of the A. ursinum, maximum densities of C. fasciata occurred at the highest altitudes.


Bruun & Bygebjerg, 2016

Rotheray (1990)



Dusek & Laska (1962)

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Bruun & Bygebjerg, 2016

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000


Dusek & Laska (1962)



Dusek & Laska (1962)


Dussaix (site web)

Cheilosia faucis Becker, 1894

not described.

Cheilosia flavipes (Panzer), 1798

the larva remains undescribed, but the adult female has been observed (Stuke, 1996) egg laying on Cirsium arvense and Taraxacum officinale. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 

Cheilosia flavissima Becker, 1894  not described.

Cheilosia fraterna (Meigen), 1830 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a); mines stems and basal rosettes of Cirsium palustre; other species of Carduus and Cirsium are also cited as larval foodplants by Reemer et al (2009).. This species overwinters as a puparium.


Rotheray (1988a)




Cheilosia frontalis Loew, 1857

not described.

Cheilosia gagatea Loew, 1857

not described.

Cheilosia gigantea (Zetterstedt), 1838 reared by Stuke and Carstensen (2002) from larvae in the tap root of Rumex longifolius and Rumex aquaticus. They observed that the species overwinters as a puparium. The larva was also reported by Bagatshanova (1990), from Rumex sp. She found that the larvae overwinter, and pupate in the spring.


Stuke & Carstensen (2002)


Cheilosia gorodkovi Stackelberg, 1963

not described.

Cheilosia griseifacies Vujic, 1994 not described.

Cheilosia grisella Becker, 1894

not described.

Cheilosia grossa (Fallen), 1817 the larva is described and figured by Rotheray (1988a, 1994). It is a miner in stems of Cirsium spp. (Rotheray, l.c.) and Carduus spp. (Dusek and Laska, 1962); detailed information about larval biology is provided by Rizza et al (1988), who use the name C.corydon (Harris) for this species. This species overwinters as a puparium. Dussaix (2013) observes that larval development is of long duration, commencing in April and not completed until September. The appearance of the puparium is shown in the coloured photo provided by Dussaix (2013).

 

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1994)

Ball, Morris & Stubbs, 2008

Rotheray (1988a)


Dusek & Laska  (1962)
Rotheray (1994)












Dusek & Laska  (1962)


Rotheray (1994)



Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)



Ball, Morris & Stubbs, 2008 // Stuke, 2000

 


Dusek & Laska  (1962)

Dusek & Laska  (1962)


Dussaix, 2013
Cheilosia herculana Bradescu, 1982 undescribed

Cheilosia hercyniae Loew, 1857

undescribed



Cheilosia himantopa (Panzer), 1798 the larva is described and figured by Dusek (1962), from larvae collected from Petasites, under the name C.canicularis. Stuke and Claussen (2000) provide information on the biology of the larvae, which live in leaf stem-bases and rhizomes of the host plant. This species overwinters as a larva. + Rotheray (1990)

Dusek (1962)


Dusek (1962)

Rotheray (1990a)

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Dusek (1962)

Cheilosia hypena Becker, 1894

not described. 

Cheilosia iberica Marcos-Garcia & Claussen, 1989 . not described

Cheilosia illustrata (Harris), 1780 larva and puparium described and figured by Rotheray (1999a). This species has been bred from Pastinaca sativa roots (bred specimen in the collections of the National Museum of Ireland) and also from the expanded rootstock of Heracleum (Rotheray, 1999a). The female has been observed egg-laying on Heracleum, (Doczkal, 1996b). The species overwinters as a puparium.

Rotheray (1999a)

Rotheray (1999a)


Rotheray (1999a)
Cheilosia impressa Loew, 1840 larva described and figured by Schmid (1999a), from larvae found feeding externally on the rootstock and underground stem-bases of Arctium. This species very probably has alternative food plants, since it may be abundant where no Arctium is present, for instance in alpine grassland. Stuke (2000) and Doczkal (2002) report egg-laying by this species on Eupatorium cannabinum and numbers of teneral specimens have been found drying their wings on large Rumex, in grazed alpine grassland where no other large herbs were present (MS).

Schmid (1999a)

Schmid (1999a)


Stuke, 2000

Schmid (1999a)
Pièce buccale ex-pupe

Cheilosia impudens Becker, 1894

not described. 

Cheilosia insignis Loew, 1857

not described, but Verlinden (2000) provides evidence suggesting the larvae may be associated with the rhizomes of Anemone species. 

Cheilosia katara Claussen & Vujic, 1993 undescribed

Cheilosia kerteszi Szilady, 1938  undescribed

Cheilosia kuznetzovae Skufjin, 1977 undescribed

Cheilosia laeviseta Claussen, 1987

undescribed

Cheilosia laeviventris Loew, 1857

undescribed; according to Stuke and Carstensen (2002) the larval host plant is Primula auricula.

Cheilosia lasiopa Kowarz, 1885 larva described and figured by Stuke and Carstensen (2000), from larvae which lived initially in the leaf and stem bases of Plantago lanceolata and later in the rootstock of that plant. They also established that this species overwinters as a puparium.

© Leif Bloss Carstensen

 

Stuke & Carstensen (2000)


Cheilosia laticornis Rondani, 1857

larva not described, but Sörensson (2003) suggests Peucedanum oreoselinum may act as one larval host plant for this species. 

Cheilosia latifrons (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva described by Stuke and Carstensen (2002), from larvae found in the tap root of Leontodon hispidus. Schmid and Grossmann (1996a) present evidence of egg-laying by C.latifrons on Leontodon autumnalis, suggesting this may be another larval host plant. Reemer et al (2009) also cite L.hispidus as a larval foodplant of this syrphid. In all probability this insect uses a range of different plant species as larval food-plants.



 

Stuke & Carstensen (2002)


Cheilosia latigenis Claussen and Kassebeer, 1993

not described. 

Cheilosia lenis Becker, 1894
C. omissa
described and figured by Dusek (1962) from larvae collected from Senecio fuchssi. The female has also been observed (Doczkal, 1996b) egg-laying on this ragwort species. Reemer et al (2009) also cite Senecio nemorensis as a larval foodplant of this syrphid.

 

Dusek, 1962

Dusek, 1962


Stuke, 2000

Dusek, 1962

Cheilosia lenta Becker, 1894
not described.

Cheilosia limbicornis Strobl, 1909  not described.

Cheilosia loewi Becker, 1894

not described. 

Cheilosia longula (Zetterstedt), 1838 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1990) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); an internal feeder on the tissues of various large, woodland basidiomycetes, especially Boletus, Leccinum, Suillus (Buxton, 1955 and Hackman & Meinander, 1979). This species overwinters as a puparium.

 

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray (1990)


Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Cheilosia lucense Ricarte, in Ricarte et al, 2014 not described. 

Cheilosia marginata Becker, 1894

not described.

Cheilosia melanopa (Zetterstedt), 1843

not described. 

Cheilosia melanura Becker, 1894

undescribed, but the adult female has been observed egg-laying on Cirsium spinosissimum (Doczkal, 1996b).



Cheilosia montana Egger, 1860

not described. 

Cheilosia morio (Zetterstedt), 1838 figured in colour by Bartsch et al (2009a). Barkemeyer (1994) provides a comprehensive review of the larval biology of this species, based on Hellrigl (1992) and Tragardh (1923). Essentially, the larva inhabits resin outflows on the trunk of Picea, caused by damage or the activities of scolytid beetles. The species apparently overwinters as a larva and pupates on the trunk, at the edge of the resin flow. Individual resin flows can evidently provide suitable larval habitat for a number of years, indicated by empty puparia trapped in the resin. The extent to which the larva is dependent upon the resin itself, or on micro-organisms associated with resins outflows, as its food source, is obscure.

Mamaev, 1971


Tragardh (1923).

Bartsch et al (2009)

Tragardh (1923).


Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999)


Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia mutabilis (Fallen), 1817

undescribed, but reported by Grosskopf et al (2001) as developing in the above-ground parts of Hieracium pilosella. According to Ball et al (2011), the larva of C.mutabilis has been found in the roots of Carduus crispus. 

Cheilosia naruska Haarto & Kerppola, 2007
not described, but possibly associated with Anthriscus sylvestris, with which the adult flies are apparently always found (Haarto, Kerppola and Ståhls, 2007). 

Cheilosia nebulosa (Verrall), 1871

undescribed, but Doczkal (2002) reports egg-laying by this species on leaves of Centaurea nigra. 

Cheilosia nigripes (Meigen), 1822

undescribed

Cheilosia nivalis Becker, 1894

not described. 

Cheilosia orthotricha Vujic & Claussen, 1994

not described, but Stuke and Claussen (2000) record finding larvae of this species in Petasites hybridus, where they occur in the lower half of the flowering stalks. It is uncertain whether the species overwinters as larva or puparium. 




Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia pagana (Meigen), 1822 undescribed, but the species has been reared from rotting roots of Anthriscus sylvestris (Stubbs, 1980) and Angelica sylvestris (Doczkal, 1996b). This species has also been collected repeatedly, by emergence traps installed over clumps of Heracleum and other emergence traps installed over clumps of Angelica (MS), suggesting that both of these large umbellifers can support the larvae of C.pagana. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).


 

Rotheray (1990)


Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000


Cheilosia paralobi Malski, 1962 undescribed.

Cheilosia pascuorum Becker, 1894

larva not described, but known to be an internal feeder in Cynoglossum officinale (Vujic, 1996). 

Cheilosia pedemontana Rondani, 1857

not described. 

Cheilosia pedestris Becker, 1894

not described. 

Cheilosia personata Loew, 1857

not described. 

Cheilosia pictipennis Egger, 1860

not described. 

Cheilosia pilifer Becker, 1894

not described. 

Cheilosia pini Becker, 1894  not described.

Cheilosia proxima (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a), collected from rosettes of Cirsium palustre, where it is an internal feeder in lateral roots. The species has also been reared from C.oleraceum. It overwinters as a puparium. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).


 

Rotheray (1988)


Cheilosia psilophthalma Becker, 1894

larva not described, but reported by Grosskopf et al (2001) as developing in the aerial parts of Hieracium pilosella and H.caespitosum. The species evidently overwinters as a puparium, among ground surface litter. 

Cheilosia pubera (Zetterstedt), 1838 the larva is described by Stuke and Carstensen (2002), from larvae found in the leaf-bases and root-stock of Geum rivale, between June and September; overwintering occurs as a puparium. C.pubera can be found in at least two rather different types of situation. This may be due to the larvae having plant hosts with rather distinctly different ecological requirements. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

© Leif Bloss Carstensen

Stuke & Carstensen (2002)


Cheilosia ranunculi Doczkal, 2000

larva undescribed, but probably associated with Ranunculus bulbosus (Doczkal, 2000, 2002), though Gibbs and Plant (2001) report the occurrence of C.ranunculi from localities where R.bulbosus did not seem to be present. 

 + Foster R. (2020)



In Ranunculus bulbosus.




Ventral side

Foster R. (2020)


Foster R. (2020)
Cheilosia redi Vujic, 1996 not described. 

Cheilosia reniformis Hellén, 1930  not described.

Cheilosia rhodiolae Schmid, 2000 larva described and figured by Schmid (2000), who also provides detail of the larval biology. He shows that the larva mines the leaves of roseroot (Rhodiola) and that the species overwinters as a puparium.

Schmid (2000)


Schmid (2000)

Schmid (2000)


Schmid (2000)

Schmid (2000)

Cheilosia rhynchops Egger, 1860

undescribed, but the female has been observed (Doczkal, 1996b) ovipositing on Adenostyles alliariae, strongly suggesting that this is a larval host plant. 




Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia rodgersi Wainwright, 1911 not described.

Cheilosia rufimana Becker, 1894

not described, but Bothe (1986) has observed the female ovipositing on Polygonum bistorta. 

Cheilosia sahlbergi Becker, 1894

larva not described, but, according to Stubbs and Falk (2002), has been observed by Rotheray to feed externally on the rootstock of Polygonum viviparum L. 

Cheilosia schnabli Becker, 1894
undescribed. 

Cheilosia scutellata (Fallen), 1817

the larva is described and figured by Rotheray (1990); well-known as tunnelling the tissues of various large woodland basidiomycete fungi, especially Boletus and Suillus (Dely-Draskovits, 1972).

+ Dufour, 1840

Dufour, 1840

Rotheray (1990)


Stuke, 2000

Dufour, 1840
Cheilosia semifasciata Becker, 1894 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988c) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); a miner in the leaves of Saxifraga, Sedum and Umbilicus (Hering, 1957). The larva is shown within a leaf mine on Umbilicus, by Ball and Morris (2013).This species overwinters as a puparium.

Rotheray (1994) and Rotheray (1988c)


Schmid, 2004a


Rotheray (1990) // Stuke, 2000

Rotheray (1988a)

Stuke, 2000

Reemer et al (2009)
Cheilosia sootryeni Nielsen, 1970
not described. 

Cheilosia soror (Zetterstedt), 1843

larva undescribed, but reported as having been found in basidiomycetes, notably truffles. 






Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia subpictipennis Claussen, 1998

not described, but almost certainly associated with Meum athamanticum, on which Doczkal has observed oviposition (Claussen, 1998). 






Stuke, 2000. Cheilosia cf. subpictipennis CLAUSSEN, 1998.

Stuke, 2000. Cheilosia cf. subpictipennis CLAUSSEN, 1998.

Cheilosia sulcifrons Kaplan in Kaplan & Thompson, 1981 not described. 

Cheilosia thessala Claussen & Ståhls, 2007
not described, but the larva is probably associated with the large basidiomycetes Amanita caesarea and Suillus granulatus (Standfuss and Claussen, 2007).

Cheilosia tonsa Sack, 1938 not described. 

Cheilosia urbana (Meigen), 1822 undescribed, but Claussen (1980) and Doczkal (1996b) found the species egg-laying in the basal leaf rosettes of Hieracium pilosella. Grosskopf et al (2001) report that C.urbana can develop in both H.pilosella and H.caespitosum, the young larvae moving down from the leaf axils in which the eggs are laid, to feed externally on the roots of the plant, in which they make small holes. The species evidently overwinters as a puparium, close to the ground surface, in the soil. Kassebeer (1993) indicates finding females egg-laying on Filipendula ulmaria.

Cheilosia uviformis Becker, 1894

undescribed


Cheilosia vangaveri Timon-David, 1937

not described. 

Cheilosia variabilis (Panzer), 1798

the larva is described and figured by Dusek (1962); it mines the roots of Scrophularia nodosa.




Dusek, 1962

 

Rotheray (1990)


Dusek, 1962

Dusek, 1962

Stuke, 2000

Stuke, 2000


Dusek, 1962
Cheilosia varnensis Claussen, 2000 undescribed

Cheilosia velutina Loew, 1840

the larva remains undescribed, but mines the stems of Cirsium palustre (Rizza et al, 1988) and, according to Torp (1984), has been found mining the rhizome of Scrophularia nodosa. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 

Cheilosia venosa Loew, 1857

not described. 

Cheilosia vernalis (Fallen), 1817

the larva has not been described, but is known to be an internal feeder in the stems of Achillea, Matricaria and Sonchus oleraceus and in the involucre of Tragopogon (Bankowska, 1980; Torp, 1984). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 




Stuke, 2000

Cheilosia vicina (Zetterstedt), 1849

the larva has not been described. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 



Cheilosia vujici Claussen & Doczkal, 1998

not described. 



Cheilosia vulpina (Meigen), 1822 the larva is described and figured, together with the puparium, by Brunel and Cadou (1990a), who reared the species from the roots of cultivated artichoke (Cynara scolymus). These authors (1990b) also demonstrate the occurrence of pupal diapause in C.vulpina, triggered by temperatures experienced during the last larval instar. Stuke and Carstensen (2002) reared the species from larvae found in the root-stock of Arctium lappa and Arctium minus, and redescribe the larva. Doczkal (2002) reports egg-laying behaviour by this species on Cirsium eriophorum and Stuke and Carstensen (2002) also refer to various Cirsium species as probable larval host plants. The species overwinters as a puparium.

© Leif Bloss Carstensen


Brunel & Cadou (1990a)

Stuke & Carstensen (2002)


Brunel & Cadou (1990a)

Brunel & Cadou (1990a)

Chrysogaster basalis Loew, 1857

not described. 

Chrysogaster cemiteriorum (L.), 1758 features of the larva and puparium are described and figured by Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1994), but without any information on larval biology or habitat.



Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)


Chrysogaster mediterraneus Vujic, 1999 not described. 

Chrysogaster rondanii Maibach & Goeldlin, 1995

not described. 

Chrysogaster simplex Loew, 1843 not described. 

Chrysogaster solstitialis (Fallen), 1817 the aquatic larva is described and figured by Hartley (1961), from larvae collected from pond mud containing much debris of fallen twigs and branches; the larvae may be found on the surface of organically-enriched mud beneath the fallen leaves of trees, in very shallow (1cm) water of seepages and spring-fed pools within deciduous woodland. The larva has been illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994).

 

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994


Hartley (1961)


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

 
Hartley (1963)



Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994


Hartley (1961)

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Chrysogaster virescens Loew, 1854

undescribed





Chrysosyrphus nasutus (Zetterstedt), 1838 not described. Van Steenis and Zuidhoff ( 2013) record observing oviposition in wet moss at the water edge, in a palsa mire. 

Chrysosyrphus nigra (Zetterstedt), 1843 not described. 


Chrysotoxum antennalis Vujić, Nedeljković & Hayat, in Vujić et al, 2017 not described. 

Chrysotoxum bicinctum (L.), 1758

larva undescribed, but has been reared on a diet of aphids in the laboratory (Rotheray and Gilbert, 1989). 

Chrysotoxum bozdagensis Nedeljković, Vujić & Hayat, in Nedeljković et al, 2018 not described. 

Chrysotoxum cautum (Harris), 1776

larva undescribed. Egg: the morphology of the egg of this species is described by Chandler (1968). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). The female has been observed ovipositing on roadside grasses by Reemer and Goudsmits (2004) and on grasses and Galium at the edge of a Rubus thicket by Smith (2004). The eggs are apparently laid singly.



Chrysotoxum cisalpinum Rondani, 1845

not described. 

Chrysotoxum clausseni Vujić, Nedeljković & Hayat, in Vujić et al, 2017 not described. 

Chrysotoxum elegans Loew, 1841 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1962), from a full-grown larva found beneath a stone in grassland; almost certainly aphid-feeding, probably on root aphids.

Dusek & Laska (1962)


Dusek & Laska (1962)














Dusek & Laska (1962)

 

Dusek & Laska (1962)

Chrysotoxum fasciatum (Muller), 1764

undescribed. 

Chrysotoxum fasciolatum (De Geer), 1776

not described. 

Chrysotoxum festivum (L.), 1758 larva undescribed; puparium described and figured by Speight (1976), who found the mature larva with the ant Lasius niger, beneath a stone in Corylus/Prunus scrub on old pasture.




Speight (1976)

Chrysotoxum gracile Becker, 1921 not described. 

Chrysotoxum intermedium
Chrysotoxum intermedium A and Chrysotoxum intermedium B.
not described.


Chrysotoxum lineare (Zetterstedt), 1819

not described. 

Chrysotoxum montanum Nedeljković & Vujić, in Nedeljković et al, 2015 not described. 

Chrysotoxum octomaculatum Curtis, 1837

not described. 

Chrysotoxum orthostylum Vujić, in Nedeljković et al, 2015 not described. 

Chrysotoxum parmense Rondani, 1845

not described. 

Chrysotoxum persicum Vujić, Nedeljković & Hayat, in Vujić et al, 2017 not described. 

Chrysotoxum tomentosum Giglio-Tos, 1890

not described. 

Chrysotoxum vernale Loew, 1841

not described, but females have been observed ovipositing around the entrance holes of ants of the Lasius flavus group in unimproved grassland (P.Goeldlin, pers.comm.). Females have also been observed egg-laying on grasses along a sandy road verge (Reemer and Goudsmits, 2004). The eggs are apparently laid singly. 

Chrysotoxum verralli Collin, 1940 larva supposedly described and figured by Dixon (1960), from a larva collected in the nest of the ant Lasius niger. So many of Dixon's determinations have proved unreliable that the identity of the Chrysotoxum species involved requires to be checked before Dixon's description of this larva can be with confidence taken to refer to C.verralli.


 

Dixon, 1960



Claussenia hispanica (Strobl), 1909

not described. 


Copestylum melleum (Jaennicke), 1867 undescribed, but the larvae are assumed to feed in decaying plant material, such as cacti (Romig and Hauser, 2004). 


Criorhina asilica (Fallen), 1816 undescribed, but the species has been reared by Schuhmacher (1968) from larvae found in tree humus in a trunk cavity in Fagus.

+ Rotheray & Stuke, 1998



 

Rotheray & Stuke, 1998


© Leif Bloss Carstensen
Criorhina berberina (Fabricius), 1805 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961) and Rotheray (1991, 1994), from the rotten wood of a recently fallen Betula and from rotten roots of a Fagus stump. The larvae probably occur in association with rotten roots of a wide range of trees, including Abies and Picea. Rotheray (1994) mentions Betula, Fagus and Fraxinus for this species and reviews its larval biology.


Rotheray (1994)

Hartley (1961)

 

Rotheray (1991)


Rotheray (1994) // Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Rotheray (1991)



Hartley (1961)

Rotheray (1994)
 

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)


Hartley (1961)
Criorhina brevipila Loew, 1871 not described. 

Criorhina floccosa (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991) and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994), from larvae collected from a rot-hole in the trunk of Ulmus and wet, decaying roots of Fagus stumps; has also been found within the mass of wet tree humus and wood fragments filling a large, winter-flooded rot-hole, within the trunk of a large, live Acer pseudoplatanus, at 1.5m from the ground.

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray (1991)

 

Rotheray (1991)


Rotheray (1991)

Rotheray & Stuke, 1998

Criorhina pachymera (Egger), 1858

not described. 



Criorhina ranunculi (Panzer), 1804 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991), from larvae from a stump of Fagus; almost certainly occurs in trunk-base, fungus-infested, wet-rot cavities, of Betula, Fagus, Quercus and Ulmus.


Ball & Morris, 2013

 

Rotheray (1991)


Ball & Morris, 2013


Rotheray & Stuke, 1998

Cryptopipiza notabila (Violovitsh), 1985 not described. 


Dasysyrphus albostriatus (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1962), Brauns (1968) and Goeldlin (1974); predominantly aphid-feeding, but apparently predatory on a wide range of soft-bodied insects; according to Goeldlin (1974) the larvae twine around twigs or small branches like an annulus, keeping to the woody parts, where their colouration makes them almost invisible, and remain motionless unless potential prey passes in their immediate vicinity. Kula (1982) reports that in spruce (Picea) forest larvae of this species are to be found mostly in the crowns of trees

Dixon, 1960


Smith, 1989

Dusek & Laska (1962)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Bitsch, 1955


Brauns, 1953

Dusek & Laska (1960a)

















Dixon, 1960


Scott  (1939)



Bitsch, 1955

Scott  (1939)

Dasysyrphus corsicanus (Becker), 1921

not described.



Dasysyrphus eggeri (Schiner), 1862

not described.



Dasysyrphus friuliensis (van der Goot), 1960

larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974); aphid feeding; Kula (1982) records larvae of this species overwintering among leaf litter on the floor of spruce (Picea) forest.

Goeldlin (1974) -Pas cette espèce +


Dasysyrphus hilaris (Zetterstedt), 1843

not described.



Dasysyrphus lenensis Bagatshanova, 1980

not described.



Dasysyrphus neovenustus Soszynski, Mielczarek and Tofilski, 2013 not described.

Dasysyrphus nigricornis (Verrall), 1873
not described.

Dasysyrphus pauxillus (Williston), 1887

not described.



Dasysyrphus pinastri (De Geer), 1776 sensu Doczkal, 1996

= D. lunulatus

larva figured by Nielsen et al (1954) (re-examination of Icelandic specimens demonstrates that the only lunulatus-group species present in Iceland is apparently D pinastri itself). Rotheray (1987) provides a description of the larva, based on larvae beaten in September from Acer pseudoplatanus infested with the aphid Drepanosiphum platanoides (Schrank). The larvae overwintered and produced adults in May of the following year. aphid feeding; Kula (1982) records larvae probably of this species as overwintering among leaf litter on the floor of spruce (Picea) forest. Egg: Chandler (1968).



? Nielsen et al (1954)

Rotheray (1987)

? Nielsen et al (1954)


Dasysyrphus postclaviger (Stys & Moucha), 1962 not described. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

 + Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


 

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974













Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

 

Dasysyrphus tricinctus (Fallen), 1817 the larva has been observed predating sawfly larvae on Picea and lepidopterous larvae on deciduous trees (Gabler, 1938, Friederichs et al, 1940); features of the larva are described and figured by Dixon (1960) and the larva is illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). Egg: features described and figured by Chandler (1968).

Rotheray (1994)


Ball & Morris, 2013

Nielsen et al (1954)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)

Dixon, 1960

 

Dasysyrphus venustus (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Dusek and Laska (1962) and Rotheray (1987) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); aphid-feeding, on trees and shrubs, e.g. Acer pseudoplatanus. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

Rotheray (1994)


Ball & Morris, 2013

Dusek & Laska (1962)


Dusek & Laska (1962)


Rotheray (1987)

 

Dusek & Laska (1962)


Didea alneti (Fallen), 1817 Dusek and Laska (1967) figure features of the arboreal larva. Larvae of this species have been found on Larix, Prunus, Salix and Quercus.




Dusek & Laska (1967)

Didea fasciata Macquart, 1834

larva described and figured by Heiss (1938) and illustrated from a preserved specimen in Rotheray (1994); aphidophagous larvae arboreal, on both conifers and deciduous trees; Laska & Stary (1980) provide data on larval biology.


Rotheray (1994)

Dusek & Laska (1961)


Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Heiss, 1938


Láska, Mazánek & Bičík, 2013

Dusek & Laska (1960a)


Heiss, 1938 // Hennig, 1952




Metcalf (1916)


Dussaix (site web)

Didea intermedia Loew, 1854

larva aphid-feeding; described by Evenhuis (1978), who found larvae on Pinus nigra.



Doros destillatorius Mik, 1885 larva not described, but Speight (1988c) describes and figures features of the puparium, which was found among moss at the base of an oak (Quercus). Females have been observed apparently searching for oviposition sites, flying slowly, in the shade, close to the trunk (at up to 1m from the ground) of mature, more-or-less isolated Acer monspesulanum, in open Acer/Quercus pubescens forest edging an abandoned almond orchard, from the middle of the day into the afternoon. A number of European Acer species are known to support ant-maintained populations of the large, subcortical aphid Stomaphis graffii (Cholodkovsky). A large population of S. graffii can build up within the bark of a tree trunk, in chambers excavated for them (Depa, 2012, 2013) by the ant host, normally Lasius brunneus Lat. Indeed, it seems that a L. brunneus colony is, to a significant extent, dependent upon the population of Stomaphis living with them within the bark of the trees they inhabit. Lasius brunneus is also an inhabitant of the bark of at least the lower parts of the trunks of various European Quercus species, including both deciduous species like Q. robur and evergreen oaks like Q. suber (Loi et al, 2012), where it has a similar relationship with the equally massive Stomaphis quercus (L.). Putting together what is known of the habitat and habits of D. destillatorius with what is known of the ant Lasius brunneus and its commencal aphid, Stomaphis, it is but a small step of logic to conclude it is more than possible that the larva of D.destillatorius is a specialist predator of Stomaphis, within the bark of the trunk bases of Acer and Quercus species. This would also be in keeping with the larval biology of the species of the closely-related syrphid genus Xanthogramma.



Speight (1988c)

Doros profuges (Harris), 1780 features of the puparium are described and illustrated by Speight (1988c), including distinctions from the puparium of D.destillatorius Mik; the larva is believed to be an ant commensal, probably with Lasius fuliginosus (Lat.). A female has been observed ovipositing at the base of a Fraxinus sapling.



Speight (1988c)


Epistrophe annulitarsis (Stackelberg), 1918 not described. 

Epistrophe cryptica Doczkal & Schmid, 1994 larva described and figured by Mazánek et al (2001), from larvae derived from eggs laid in the laboratory by a wild-caught, gravid female. Mazánek et al (2001) include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe.

Mazánek et al (2001)

Mazánek et al (2001)


Epistrophe diaphana (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva described and figured by Mazánek et al (2001), from larvae collected on Cicorium in the field and then reared in the laboratory. Mazánek et al (2001) include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe and also figure its puparium.

Mazánek et al (2001)

Mazánek et al (2001)



Mazánek et al (2001)

Epistrophe eligans (Harris), 1780 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974) and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994) and Bartsch et al (2009a); egg described and figured by Chandler (1968); the larva is aphid feeding and largely arboreal, on shrubs and trees such as Euonymus, Malus, Prunus, Quercus and Sambucus, but can occur on bushes e.g. Rubus fruticosus (Dussaix, 1997), or herbaceous plants e.g. Arundo and some crops, such as Foeniculum, Vicia. Chambers et al (1986) refer to having collected larvae of this species from winter wheat crops. Since harvesting of winter wheat would occur before E.eligans larvae reached maturity it can only be presumed that such cereal crops represent a drain on the E.eligans population. Dussaix (2005a) points out that this species goes through prolonged larval diapause, from spring through to the end of the following winter. Mazánek et al (2001) include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe. Dussaix (2013) provides coloured photos of both the active larva and the diapausing larva, and also a photo of the puparium. The puparial phase lasts only a few weeks (Dussaix, 2013).

Rotheray (1994)


Dixon, 1960

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Brauns, 1953 

Dussaix, 2013

Dussaix, 2013 (Larve en diapause)

Mazánek et al (2001)



Dixon, 1960 // Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Smith, 1989


Mazánek et al (2001)


Dussaix, 2013
Epistrophe flava Doczkal & Schmid, 1994 larva described and figured (under the name ochrostoma) by Goeldlin (1974), from larvae collected from aphid galls on Malus in an orchard (Goeldlin, pers.comm.). Mazánek et al (2001) report finding the larvae of this species in the field on Cichorium and Cirsium. Bartsch et al (2009a) refer to larvae on Sambucus nigra. The larva is redescribed, figuring the puparium, by Mazánek et al (2001), who also include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe.

Mazánek et al (2001)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Mazánek et al (2001)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Mazánek et al (2001)
Epistrophe grossulariae (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1986) and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994), from larvae collected on Acer pseudoplatanus; aphid feeding; Dixon's (1960) material identified as E.grossulariae was wrongly determined. Chambers et al (1986) refer to having collected larvae of this species from winter wheat crops. Mazánek et al (2001) include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe.

Rotheray (1994)

 

Mazánek et al (2001)


Epistrophe leiophthalma (Schiner & Egger), 1853

= Epistrophe liophthalma
larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974) from larvae collected on Cirsium at 1500m; aphid feeding. Mazánek et al (2001) include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe.
 



Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974
Epistrophe melanostoma (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva described by Mazánek et al (2001), who report finding the larvae of this species in the field on Carduus, Dactynotus, Euonymus and Sambucus nigra. Dussaix (2013) reports observing oviposition of this species on the foliage of an apple tree. Mazánek et al (2001) include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe and also figure its puparium.

 

Mazánek et al (2001)



Mazánek et al (2001)
Epistrophe nitidicollis (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1959), Goeldlin (1974) and Mazánek et al (2001); aphid-feeding. The larval biology is described by Laska & Stary (1980), who found larvae on Euonymus, Malus, Prunus and Sambucus nigra. Mazánek et al (2001) also report finding the larvae on Acer pseudoplatanus, Cerasus avium, Carduus,  Rubus idaeus and Spirea. Mazánek et al (2001) include this species in their key to the third stage larvae of European Epistrophe and also figure its puparium. Dussaix (2013) provides a coloured photo of the puparium, and observes that the puparial phase lasts less than 2 weeks.

 

Mazánek et al (2001)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek  & Laska (1960a)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau (1974)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Mazánek et al (2001)


Dusek & Laska (1959) and Láska, Mazánek & Bičík  (2013)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau (1974)

Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1959)




Dussaix, 2013

Epistrophe obscuripes (Strobl), 1910

not described. 

Epistrophe ochrostoma (Zetterstedt), 1849 not described. The larva described under this name by Goeldlin (1974) was that of E. flava (P.Goeldlin. pers.comm.).

Epistrophe olgae Mutin, 1993

not described, but reported from Sambucus spp by Bartsch et al (2009a). 


Epistrophella coronata (Rondani), 1857 undescribed.


Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer), 1776 the larva has been described and figured by various authors, notably by Bhatia (1939). It is incorporated into the keys provided by Rotheray (1994), who also figures the larva in colour. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). Egg morphology is described by Chandler (1968), oviposition behaviour by Bargen et al (1998) and Scholz and Poehling (2000) and various aspects of egg development are detailed by Branquart and Hemptinne (2000), who establish that a female of this species can lay between 2000 and 4,500 eggs during its adult life. The larva is predominantly aphidophagous on a wide range of low-growing plants including various crops (e.g. Beta, Lactuca, Ribes, Solanum, Trifolium spp., Triticum), shrubs (e.g. Buddleja, Euonymus, Sambucus), lianas (Lonicera) and trees. Gomez-Polo et al (2014) demonstrate that the larvae of E. balteatus predate not only aphids, but also a wide range of other arthropods they come across, including larve of other syrphids, spiders, Collembola, caterpillars of micro-Lepidoptera (Plodia) and Heteroptera. Kula (1982) records that E.balteatus shows a preference for aphid colonies low down among the foliage, when its larvae are found on spruce (Picea). Dusek and Laska (1974) and Bargen et al (1998) describe elements of larval biology and Bombosch (1957) and Tanke (1976) give accounts of laboratory culture of the species. Branquart (1999) shows that development time (from egg-laying to eclosion of adult) in this species can be as little as 3 weeks. The puparial phase lasts for approximately one week. An extensive literature has grown up around this species, because it may be readily cultured under laboratory conditions. It has to be recognised that, although larvae of this species may occur abundantly in crops their presence does not necessarily lead to abundant adults - pesticides used to control aphids can lead to 100% mortality of E.balteatus larvae. There can also be sublethal effects of pesticides on the insects, for instance reduction of fecundity, in females that have developed in treated crops (see, for instance, Colignon et al, 2003). Barkemeyer (1994) provides an extensive and comprehensive review of the literature concerning this species and its biology. While it has been long recognised that this species can overwinter as an adult, only recently has it been established thsat it can also overwinter as a larva (Sarthou et al, 2006).

Dussaix, 2013

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska  (1959)

Dixon, 1960 // Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Scott  (1939)


Bhatia (1939)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

 

Dusek & Laska (1959)




Scott  (1939)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974  


 



Brauns, 1953


Dussaix, 2013


Eriozona syrphoides (Fallen), 1817 larva arboreal, known to feed on aphids on Picea (Kula, 1983). Figured in colour and distinguished from larvae of related genera and from the larva of E. erratica, in the keys of Rotheray (1994).

Rotheray (1994)


Kula, 1983

Kula, 1983

Geoff Wilkinson et al (2020)

Láska, Mazánek & Bičík, 2013

Kula, 1983

Kula, 1983


Geoff Wilkinson et al (2020)



Eristalinus aeneus (Scopoli), 1763 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961) and by Pérez-Bañón et al (2003), who also provide a key distinguishing the puparia of this species from the puparia of the other European Eristalinus. At the northern edge of its range the larvae of E.aeneus occur in freshwater seepages and brackish rock pools on the sea coast, but elsewhere they occur in a variety of inland situations, including in association with animal dung (e.g. from pigs) and in sewage farms. Campoy et al (2019) show that, in a large-scale rearing system, the life cycle of E. aeneus is completed in an average of 9 – 10 weeks.


Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)

Hartley (1961)


Zalat & Mahmoud, 2009


Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)
Eristalinus megacephalus (Rossi), 1794 larval and pupal morphology described and figured by Pérez-Bañón et al (2003), who also provide a key distinguishing the puparia of this species from the puparia of other European Eristalinus. The larvae were found in running water contaminated by pig manure.


 

Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)


Zalat & Mahmoud, 2009


Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)


Zalat & Mahmoud, 2009
Eristalinus sepulchralis (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), from larvae collected in rotting vegetation in a pond. This species has also been collected from emergence traps installed over Glyceria maxima beds in a seasonally temporary pool. Larval morphology also described and figured by Pérez-Bañón et al (2003), who provide a key distinguishing the puparia of this species from the puparia of other European Eristalinus.

 

Lobkova et al, 2007

Hartley (1961)

Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)

Hartley (1961)


Hartley (1961) // Dusek & Laska (1960a) // Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)

Lobkova et al, 2007

Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann), 1818 larval morphology described and figured by Pérez-Bañón et al (2003), who provide a key distinguishing the puparia of this species from the puparia of other European Eristalinus. The larvae were found in standing water containing decaying plant material (pine needles) or rotting animal carcasses and also in running water contaminated by pig manure. Dutto and Maistrello (2017) report the recovery of E. taeniops larvae from various forms of organic waste, produced as by-products on urban industrial premises.


 

Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)


Zalat & Mahmoud, 2009

Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)

Zalat & Mahmoud, 2009


Zalat & Mahmoud, 2009

Eristalis abusiva Collin, 1931 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), from specimens collected from mud at the edge of a moorland pond. The species has also been collected from emergence traps installed at the edge of oligotrophic flushes in unimproved grassland.


 










Hartley (1961)

Eristalis alpina (Panzer), 1798

not described. 

Eristalis anthophorina (Fallen), 1817 features of the larva and puparium are described and figured by Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1994), but without any information on larval biology or habitat. Bagachanova (1990) records rearing the species from swampy ground rich in organic material, and also from swamp hummocks.


Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Bagachanova (1990)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)


Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)


Bagachanova (1990)

Eristalis arbustorum (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961); aquatic/subaquatic, occurring in a wide variety of shallow, standing water situations and in cow-dung, silage pits etc. Dussaix (2005b) reports rearing the species from compost and manure heaps. Dussaix (2013) reports that the puparial phase lasts approximately two weeks, in non-overwintering generations of the species, and provides a coloured photo of the puparium.


 












Pérez-Bañón et al (2003)





Hartley (1961) and Dolezil (1972)

Hartley (1961)


Dussaix, 2013

Eristalis cryptarum (Fabricius), 1794

undescribed. According to Stubbs and Falk (2002) the female has been observed ovipositing on and close to very fresh cow dung along oligotrophic seepages in moorland. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 

Eristalis fratercula (Zetterstedt), 1838 larva described and figured by Campoy et al (2017), from laboratory-reared specimen. A larva from the same source is figured in colour by Nielsen and Svendsen (2014), reared in the lab, in “a plastic dish with a solution of soil, water and cow manure”.



Nielsen & Svendsen (2014)






Campoy et al (2017)


Eristalis gomojunovae Violovitsh, 1977 not described. 

Eristalis hirta Loew, 1932 not described. 

Eristalis horticola (De Geer), 1776 the larva and puparium are described by Dolezil (1972).



Dolezil (1972)

Dolezil (1972)

Eristalis intricaria (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), occurs in semi-liquid mud and fen peat beside water, in field drains, slurry and cow dung on water-logged ground.


Hartley (1961) and Dolezil (1972)

Hartley (1961)

Eristalis jugorum Egger, 1858

undescribed

Eristalis nemorum (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961); aquatic/subaquatic in streams and pools; also in cow faeces on water-logged ground.


Hartley (1961)


Bagachanova (1990)

Hartley (1961)


Bagachanova (1990)
Eristalis obscura Loew, 1866 features of the larva and puparium of an Eristalis species identified as E.vitripennis Strobl are described and figured by Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1994), but without any information on larval biology or habitat and no discussion of the basis upon which the species was named as E.vitripennis. It should be noted that vitripennis of Strobl was recognised as a junior synonym of rupium by Hippa et al (2001). There is need for re-examination of the adults of the material upon which Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1994) based their description of "E.vitripennis" larvae, before it can be decided to which species the description belongs.
Eristalis oestracea (L.), 1758 not described.

Eristalis pertinax (Scopoli), 1763

larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), from larvae in farm drains, wet manure and decaying vegetable matter in a pond. Dussaix (2005b) also reports rearing the species from a manure heap. His observation of oviposition in E.pertinax at the edge of a pond demonstrated that the eggs of this species were laid at the water surface, and float. The puparial phase lasts approximately 4 weeks (Dussaix, 2013).


Dussaix, 2013

Hartley (1961) and Dolezil (1972)


Hartley (1961) and Dolezil (1972)

Hartley (1961)


Dussaix, 2013

Eristalis picea (Fallen), 1817

not described, but probably occurring in bottom deposits of seasonal pools over sands or gravels. 

Eristalis rossica Stackelberg, 1958 features of the larva and puparium are described and figured by Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1994), but without giving any information on larval biology or habitat. According to Bagachanova (1990) the larvae live among the roots of grasses growing in shallow water, but do not occur in swamps.
















Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Eristalis rupium Fabricius, 1805 aquatic, described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1991b). + Dolezil (1972)






Maibach & Goeldlin (1991b)


Dolezil (1972)



Maibach & Goeldlin (1991b)


Dolezil (1972)

Eristalis similis (Fallen), 1817 Pérez-Bañón et al (2013) describe the larva, figuring features in which it differs from the larva of E. tenax using photos derived from scanning electron microscopy. They found the larva of E. similis “in streams rich in organic matter”, the organic matter being, in this case, waste from an olive processing factory. They state that “oviposition took place at the edges of the stream, under and between the stones situated near the water. Eggs were ovoposited in clusters of up to a hundred eggs if several females used the same place. Pupation took place between the vegetation and slightly above the water level”. Maibach (1993) has observed oviposition by this species in a shallow, water-filled (5cm. water) depression, containing rotting wood and leaves, in river-margin gallery forest.




Pérez-Bañón et al (2013)

Pérez-Bañón et al (2013)

Eristalis tecta Vujic, Radenkovic, Nielsen & Simic, 2004 not described. 

Eristalis tenax (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961); redescribed by Pérez-Bañón et al (2013); illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); aquatic/subaquatic; found in a wide range of aqueous and semi-aqueous, organically rich, rotting materials, including cow-dung, slurry etc.. Dussaix (2005b) reared the species from both compost and dung. Laboratory culture of E.tenax is described by Dolley et al (1959). Barkemeyer (1994) provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the biology of this species. The puparial phase lasts approximately 10 days (Dussaix (2013). Campoy et al (2019) carried out in depth studies of a large scale rearing system for E. tenax, demonstrating that the length of the life cyle can be maintained at approximately 7 weeks. Francuski et al (2014) demonstrate that laboratory-reared E. tenax show loss of genetic diversity after 6 – 8 generations.

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1994)



Hamed et al, 2017



Ikezaki, 1977










Hartley (1961)

Hartley (1961) and Dolezil (1972)

Pérez-Bañón et al (2013)

Ikezaki, 1977






Hartley (1962)

Hartley (1961)


Dusek & Laska (1960a)


Pérez-Bañón et al (2013)



Dussaix, 2013

Ikezaki, 1977


Eumerus alpinus Rondani, 1857

not described, but Speight and Garrigue (2014) reared the species (as E. olivaceus) from larvae found in tubers of Asphodelus albus and A. ramosus and provide a coloured photo of the puparium. The apparently mature larvae overwinter in decaying asphodel tubers and duration of the puparial phase is 2 – 4 weeks (Speight and Garrigue, 2014).


 


Speight & Garrigue (2014)

Souba-Dols G.J. et al., 2020

Souba-Dols G.J. et al., 2020

Eumerus amoenus Loew, 1848

Efflatoun (1922) records this species as having been reared from Allium, potato tubers, water melon, grapes, rotten paw-paw and damaged rhizomes of Iris germanica. It has also been reared from Allium (shallots) in the vicinity of Bordeaux. 

Eumerus anatolicus Grković, Vujić & Radenković, in Chroni et al, 2018

not described. 

Eumerus angustifrons Loew, 1848 not described. 

Eumerus argyropus Loew, 1848

not described. 

Eumerus armatus Ricarte and Rotheray, in Ricarte et al, 2012 not described. 

Eumerus aurofinis Grković, Vujić & Radenković, in Grković et al, 2016

not described.

Eumerus azabense Ricarte & Marcos-García, in Ricarte et al, 2018  not described.

Eumerus banaticus Nedeljković, Grković & Vujić, in Grković et al, 2019 not described. 

Eumerus barbarus (Coquebert), 1804

undescribed, but the species has supposedly been reared from cultivated Allium sp. 

Eumerus basalis Loew, 1848

undescribed. 

Eumerus bayardi Seguy, 1961

IN FRENCH LIST, NO IN SPECIES ACCOUNTS

Eumerus bicornis Grković, Vujić & Hayat, in Grković et al, 2019

not described. 

Eumerus bifurcatus van Steenis & Hauser, in Grković et al, 2019 not described. 

Eumerus caballeroi Gil-Collado, 1929 not described. 

Eumerus canariensis Baez, 1982 not described.



Eumerus claripennis Coe, 1957  not described.

Eumerus clavatus Becker, 1923

not described. 

Eumerus consimilis Simic & Vujic, 1996

not described. 

Eumerus crassus Grković, Vujić & Radenković, in Grković et al, 2016  not described.

Eumerus dubius Baez, 1982 not described.

Eumerus emarginatus Loew, 1848

not described.

Eumerus etnensis van der Goot, 1964 the egg, larva and puparium of this species described and figured by Pérez-Bañón and Marcos-Garcia (1998), under the name E.purpurariae. The larvae were found mining decaying stems (platyclades) of the introduced cactus Opuntia. The puparial phase lasts from two and a half to nearly four weeks. In southern Europe, larvae apparently occur throughout the year, as do puparia.


 

Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-Garcia (1998)

Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-Garcia (1998)


Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-Garcia (1998)

Eumerus excisus van der Goot, 1968

IN FRENCH LIST, NO IN SPECIES ACCOUNTS



Eumerus flavitarsis Zetterstedt, 1843

not described. 



Eumerus funeralis Meigen, 1822
= E. tuberculatus
larva described and figured by various authors, including Hodson (1927, 1932a) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); phytophagous, feeding in damaged bulbs of Amaryllis, Hyacinthus and Narcissus etc.; classed as a minor pest of horticulture, but larvae are unable to complete their development in the absence of fungi (especially Fusarium basal-rot fungus and yeasts, Saccharomyces spp.) infesting the bulbs (Creager and Spruijt, 1935). Whether the larva of E.funeralis carries with it (from hatching) the fungus it requires, enabling it to inoculate with that fungus a healthy bulb it attacks, so as to provide itself with a food supply, has not been established. This species overwinters as a larva (Brunel and Cadou (1994).

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)


Rotheray (1994)



Hodson, 1932

Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999)  // Dixon, 1960

Hodson (1932) // Hodson (1931)


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999) // Rotheray & Gilbert (2011)























Rotheray (1994)





Hodson, 1932
Eumerus gibbosus Van Steenis, Hauser & Van Zuijen, 2017  not described. 

Eumerus graecus Becker, 1921 not described. 

Eumerus grallator Smit, in Grković, Smit, Radenković, Vujić & van Steenis, 2019 not described. 

Eumerus grandis Meigen, 1822

not described. The female has been observed ovipositing on the basal leaves of a withered plant of Laserpitium latifolium (Sjöberg, 2015). 

Eumerus hispanicus van der Goot, 1966 not described

Eumerus hispidus Smit, Franquinho-Aguiar & Wakeham-Dawson 2004 undescribed, undoubtedly phytophagous, possibly in Euphorbia. 

Eumerus hungaricus Szilady, 1940 the puparium is described and figured by Ricarte et al (2017), from specimens reared from bulbs of Narcissus confusus in Spain. From their data, it is apparent that the larva overwinters in bulbs of the host plant. In France, adults now consigned to E. hungaricus have repeatedly been collected from localities where no species of Narcissus is present anywhere in the vicinity, suggesting E. hungaricus can also use some other plant as larval host.



Ricarte et al.,  2017

Ricarte et al.,  2017

 

Ricarte et al.,  2017


Ricarte et al.,  2017
Eumerus karyates Chroni, Grković & Vujić, in Chroni et al, 2018 not described. 

Eumerus lasiops Rondani, 1857 not described. 

Eumerus latitarsis Macquart in Webb & Berthelot, 1839 the larva occurs in decomposing parts of the stem of Euphorbia canariensis L. (Báez, 1977). 

Eumerus longicornis Loew, 1855  not described. 

Eumerus lucidus Loew, 1848 not described. 

Eumerus lunatus (Fabricius), 1794   not described.

Eumerus minotaurus Claussen & Lucas, 1988  not described. 

Eumerus montanum Grković, Radenković & Vujić, in Grković et al, 2017  not described. 

Eumerus narcissi Smith, 1928

on various occasions reared from bulbs of cultivated Narcissus, probably N.tazetta, according to Latta and Cole (1933). In N America, the species has also been reared from the indigenous Hippeastrum and “onions” (Speight et al, 2013a) 

Eumerus niehuisi Doczkal, 1996

not described. 

Eumerus nivariae Baez, 1982 not described. 

Eumerus niveitibia Becker, 1921 not described. 

Eumerus nudus Loew, 1848 larva and puparium described and figured by Ricarte et al (2017), from larvae collected from “swollen roots of Asphodelus cerasiferus”. The species has also been reared from larvae found in tubers of Asphodelus ramosus (sometimes regarded as a synonym of A. cerasiferus), by Speight and Garrigue (2014), who also provide a photo of the puparium. Ricarte et al (2017) question the identity of the larval host plant recorded by Speight and Garrigue (2014), stating it must have been A. cerasiferus. However, it can be confirmed that the asphodel species refered to as A. ramosus by Speight and Garrigue (2014) was indeed that species. Asphodelus cerasiferus also occurs in the vicinity of the Jardin Méditerranéen (Banyuls-sur-Mer), from which the larvae were collected, but is a much rarer plant there (J. Garrigue, pers. comm.) and was not investigated as a potential host plant for E. nudus. The larva of E. nudus apparently overwinters within decaying asphodel tubers and the duration of the puparial phase is approximately 6 weeks (Speight and Garrigue, 2014). An occupied tuber was usually found to contain more than one E. nudus larva and often also larvae of E. olivaceus and E. pulchellus (Speight and Garrigue, 2014).


 

Ricarte et al.,  2017


Ricarte et al.,  2017

 

Ricarte et al.,  2017


Speight & Garrigue (2014)













Ricarte et al.,  2017

Eumerus obliquus (Fabricius), 1805 larva and puparium described and figured by de Moor (1973) from larvae collected from decaying, liquified tissues of a tropical fruit (Loganiaceae) and from cuttings of Poinsettia (Euphorbiaceae) in water. Puparium also described and figured by Ricarte et al (2008), from larvae in decaying Opuntia platyclades and fruit. In this species the three pairs of lappets at the posterior end of the abdomen, normally characterising the larvae of Eumerus species, seem to be undeveloped. De Moor (1973) records E. obliquus as having been reared from the decaying tissues of fruiting bodies, tubers or bulbs of a wide range of plant families: Crucifera (rotting cabbage), Cucurbitaceae (pumpkin), Liliacea (Aloe), Rutaceae (grapefruit), Sapindaceae (Lichi), Solanaceae (rotting potatoes). The pupal phase lasts in this species for 2 – 3 weeks (de Moor, 1973).




Ricarte et al., 2008



























Ricarte et al., 2008
Eumerus olivaceus Loew, 1848
not described. ( NO Speight and Garrigue, 2014)

Eumerus ornatus Meigen, 1822

not described. 

Eumerus ovatus Loew, 1848

not described. 

Eumerus pannonicus Ricarte, Vujić & Radenković, in Markov et al, 2016 not described. 

Eumerus pauper Becker, 1921
not described. 

Eumerus phaeacus Chroni, Grković & Vujić, in Chroni et al, 2018

not described. 

Eumerus pulchellus Loew, 1848 developmental stages described and figured by Ricarte et al (2008), from larvae found in cavities in tubers of the asphodel, Asphodelus aestivus and sea squill, Urginea maritima. Asphodelus albus and Asphodelus ramosus have also been identified as plant hosts for the larvae (Speight and Garrigue, 2014). So far, larvae of E. pulchellus have been found accompanying larvae of other bulb/tuber inhabiting syrphid larvae and it seems likely that this species is dependent upon larvae of other species to provide the conditions of plant tissue decay under which its own larvae can develop.


 

Ricarte et al., 2008

Ricarte et al., 2008

Speight & Garrigue (2014)

Eumerus purpurariae Baez, 1982

undescribed. The developmental stages described as those of E.purpurariae by Pérez-Bañón and Marcos-Garcia (1998) are those of E.etnensis (see Smit et al, 2004).

Eumerus purpureus Macquart, in Webb & Berthelot, 1839

not described. 

Eumerus pusillus Loew, 1848 larva described and figured by Ricarte et al (2008) from larvae in decaying parts of bulbs of sea squill, Drimia maritima. Van Eck (2016a) reports further rearings of E. pusillus from D. maritima bulbs.


Ricarte et al., 2008

Ricarte et al., 2008

Eumerus richteri Stackelberg, 1960 not described. 

Eumerus rubrum Grković & Vujić, in Grković et al, 2017 not described. 

Eumerus ruficornis Meigen, 1822

Johansson (2011) provides evidence indicating that a larval host plant of E. ruficornis is Scorzonera humilis. 

Eumerus rusticus Sack, 1932 not described. 

Eumerus sabulonum (Fallen), 1817

Munk (2000) observed early instar larvae of apparently this species in cavities they had presumably made in the leaves of Jasione montana, on which he had previously observed oviposition by E. sabulonum. Unfortunately the larvae were not reared to maturity. Stubbs (1997) also reported a female apparently ovipositing on a rosette of Jasione montana.
Eumerus santosabreui Baez, 1982 .  not described

Eumerus sicilianus van der Goot, 1964  not described. 

Eumerus sinuatus Loew, 1855

not described. 

Eumerus sogdianus Stackelberg, 1952

undescribed, but reared from Allium spp., Daucus carota and Solanum tuberosum. This species overwinters as a larva (Brunel and Cadou (1994). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 

Eumerus strigatus (Fallen), 1817 puparium described and figured by Ricarte et al (2017); larva described and figured by Heiss (1938); bulb feeder, recorded from Amaryllidaceae, parsnip, carrot, potato, asparagus, artichoke roots (Cynara scolymus) and also from rotting grapefruit; regarded as a minor pest of horticulture, but apparently only attacks bulbs etc. when they are rotting. This species overwinters as a larva (Brunel and Cadou (1994).

Heiss, 1938


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)


Ricarte et al.,  (2017 //
Heiss, 1938 and Hennig, 1952 and Dusek & Laska (1960a)

 Smith, 1989 // Dixon, 1960


Dixon, 1960



Rotheray & Gilbert (1999) // Hodson (1932)


Ricarte et al.,  (2017)


Poos & Weigel, 1927
Hennig, 1952

 

Dusek & Laska (1961) // Ricarte et al.,  (2017)

Ricarte et al.,  (2017)



Heiss, 1938



Eumerus subornatus Claussen, 1989

not described. 

Eumerus sulcitibius Rondani, 1868

not described. 

Eumerus tarsalis Loew, 1848

not described. 

Eumerus tauricus (Stackelberg), 1952 not described. 

Eumerus tenuitarsis Grković & Vujić, in Grković, Smit, Radenković, Vujić & van Steenis, 2019 not described. 

Eumerus torsicus Grković & Vujić, in Grković et al, 2016 not described. 

Eumerus tricolor (Fabricius), 1798 larva and puparium described by Arzone (1972). The species has been reared from Tragopogon (Loiselle, 1914; Arzone, 1973) and is recognised as a pest of crops of T.porrifolius (Arzone, 1972).


Arzone (1972)


Arzone (1972)

Arzone (1972)
Eumerus truncatus Rondani, 1868 not described.

Eumerus uncipes Rondani, 1850

not described. 

Eumerus vandenberghei Doczkal, 1996

not described. 

Eumerus vestitus Bezzi, 1912 not described. 


Eupeodes abiskoensis (Dusek & Laska), 1973 not described. 



Eupeodes biciki Nielsen, 2003 not described. 

Eupeodes borealis (Dusek & Laska), 1973 not described.

Eupeodes bucculatus (Rondani), 1857 Dixon (1960) provides a description of the larva of what was probably this species. Larvae were found by Laska and Stary (1980) on Cirsium arvense in fields.

Kumar et al, 1987



Kumar et al, 1987
Eupeodes corollae (Fabricius), 1794 larva described by Dusek & Laska (1961); larva and puparium photographed in colour by Dussaix (2013); biology detailed by Marcos-Garcia (1981); aphid feeding on various low-growing plants, particularly Leguminosae and including various crop plants (e.g. Avena, Beta, Cucurbita, Lactuca, Triticum, Zea). Dussaix (2013) also reports larvae on Acer campestre, Hedera, Laburnum, Malus and Rosa. Chambers and Sunderland (1983) record larval densities of up to 46 per m² in crops of winter wheat (Triticum). Laboratory culture of this species is described by Bombosch (1957). According to Dusek and Laska (1961), this species overwinters as a puparium, which is most unusual for an aphidiphagous syrphid. Development (from egg-laying to larval maturity) can apparently take as little as 11 days (Chambers, 1991). The puparial phase lasts approximately 8 days (Dussaix (2013). Egg: Chandler (1968). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). A comprehensive review of the biology of this species is provided by Barkemeyer (1994).

Dussaix, 2013


Dusek & Laska (1961)


Dixon, 1960

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974 

Dussaix, 2013

Eupeodes curtus (Hine), 1922 not described. 

Eupeodes duseki Mazanek, Laska & Bicik, 1999 not described. 

Eupeodes flaviceps (Rondani), 1857

larva undescribed, but reared by Marcos-Garcia (1985b) from larvae collected on Thalictrum flavum among aphids. Further plants on which E.flaviceps larvae have been found are listed by Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1998): Chaerophyllum, Cirsium, Eryngium and Foeniculum. 


Eupeodes goeldlini Mazanek, Laska & Bicik, 1999

not described. 



Eupeodes lambecki (Dusek & Laska), 1973

not described. 



Eupeodes latifasciatus (Macquart), 1829 larva described by Dusek & Laska (1960); aphid feeding, on root-aphids. Egg: Chandler (1968). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). This species has been reared in the laboratory on aphids associated with various low-growing plants and shrubs. The available information on rearing in culture is summarised by Barkemeyer (1994).



Dusek & Laska (1960b)


Dusek & Laska (1960b)


Dussaix (site web)

Eupeodes lucasi (Garcia & Laska), 1983

larva not described, but reared from aphids on Arctium, Cirsium, Cynara scolymus, Doronicum, Epilobium, Malus, Prunus and Vicia (Rojo and Marcos-Garcia, 1998; Marcos-Garcia et al, 2000). Under laboratory conditions, the period egg/adult is less than 4 weeks, for this species (Marcos-Garcia et al, 2000). 


Eupeodes lundbecki (Soot-Ryen), 1946

not described, but Bagachanova (1990) records rearing this species from larvae found on Tanacetum and Prunus.

Eupeodes luniger (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Bhatia (1939) and Rotheray (1994) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994) and Dussaix (2013); puparium shown in colour by Dussaix (2013); biology described by Dusek & Laska (1974) and Marcos-Garcia (1981); aphid feeding on various low-growing plants, including various crops (Cynara, Lavatera, Vicia, Zea). Dussaix (2005b) also reports rearing the species from larvae collected on Hedera. Dussaix (2013) adds Urtica to the list of plants on which larvae of this species have been found, and indicates that duration of the puparial phase is approximately ten days. Apparently this species can overwinter as a puparium. Egg: Chandler (1968). A review of the literature on the biology of this species is provided by Barkemeyer (1994).

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1994)

Dusek & Laska, 1962

Dixon, 1960

Bhatia (1939)













Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974  // Dixon, 1960




Bhatia (1939)


Scott  (1939)



Bhatia (1939)


Dusek & Laska, 1967


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

 

Bhatia (1939)



Scott  (1939)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Dussaix, 2013
Eupeodes nielseni (Dusek & Laska), 1976 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); apparently a specialist predator of conifer aphids.

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1988b)

Eupeodes nigroventris (Fluke), 1933

= E. rufipunctatus

not described, but has been collected on Salix, on which both aphids and coccids were present (Vockeroth, 1992). 

Eupeodes nitens (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva undescribed, but this species has been reared by Goeldlin (pers.comm.) from larvae collected from Cirsium in alpine grassland. Barkemeyer (1994) provides a comprehensive account of the aphid species on which E.nitens has been reared under laboratory conditions, citing various authors. Metcalf (1916) described the larva of a North American species he named as E.nitens, but E.nitens is not known from N America. Bagachanova (1990) reared a species she identified as E.nitens from larvae on Betula, Epilobium, Larix, Rumex, Salix, Spiraea, Tanacetum, Thalitricum, Urtica and umbellifers.


Metcalf (1916)


Metcalf (1916)


Metcalf (1916)

Eupeodes nuba (Wiedemann), 1830

not described. 



Eupeodes punctifer (Frey), 1934
not described, but Bagachanova (1990) reared this species from larvae found on Spiraea.



Eupeodes tirolensis (Dusek & Laska), 1973

not described. 



Eupeodes vandergooti (Dusek & Laska), 1973

not described. 




Ferdinandea aurea Rondani, 1844 not described, but Ricarte et al (2010) record collection of F.aurea in emergence traps covering trunk-base tree cavities (“root-holes”) and other trunk tree-holes, in Quercus faginea and Q.pyrenaica. Also, a female has been observed apparently prospecting the trunk base of an overmature Q.pubescens for oviposition purposes. The tree concerned had no extensive areas of trunk-base rot or trunk cavities, but did exhibit a narrow area of Cerambyx damage just above the ground surface. On a number of French sites where F.aurea is locally common Cerambyx velutinus is also abundant and it is possible that the larvae of F.aurea inhabit the tunnels made by the larvae of this cerambycid, low down on the trunks (and in trunk cavities) of various Quercus species. A dependence upon some other Mediterranean-zone saproxylic insect like Cerambyx velutinus would help to explain the restriction of F.aurea to the Mediterranean zone and its unusual feature of having an almost entirely autumnal flight period – presumably providing the female with an opportunity to oviposit in trunk cavities that have reached an approprite condition for larval development. Now that it is known that the larvae of F.aurea develop in trunk-base tree holes it should be possible to establish exactly where, in those tree holes, the larvae occur and whether other saproxylics are involved in making appropriate larval microhabitat available for F.aurea.

Ferdinandea cuprea (Scopoli), 1763

larva described by Hartley (1961), who found the larvae in semi-aqueous material associated with tree wounds, in Cossus-damaged Populus. Illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994) and Dussaix (2013). Larvae have also been collected from sappy frass or fungus growths in superficial, sub-bark Cossus tunnels in Quercus (including Q.pubescens) and from sap runs on Quercus where there was no evidence that Cossus was present. Larvae have been found in tree wounds and sap runs on the trunks of living deciduous trees of various sorts, including Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Malus, Populus, Quercus, Salix and Ulmus. Rotheray (1990a) found larvae in association with wet, decomposing tree roots of Quercus and in the tree humus of large trunk cavities in old Quercus. Ricarte et al (2010) report collection of F.cuprea in emergence traps covering holes in trunks of Quercus pyrenaica. Dussaix (2005b) reports finding puparia at the base of living Quercus, where parts of either the trunk-base or roots were rotting. Van Eck and Zwakhals (2015) also mention collection of the puparia of this species in the winter and early spring, from around the base of a large oak carrying sap runs. The puparia can be found by eye, lying free on the ground surface, or among loose, ground surface litter (A. Eck, pers.comm.). Dussaix (2013) reports observing full-grown F. cuprea larvae moving down the trunk of an oak, away from the sap-run in which they developed, to pupate among the litter at the trunk base. Brunel and Cadou (1994) show that larval development of F.cuprea is not necessarily dependent upon tree exudates, having reared the species successfully and repeatedly from larvae collected in the field from rotting artichoke (Cynara) roots, on which the larvae also fed in the laboratory. They suggest that, on both morphological and behavioural grounds, the larva of F.cuprea should be regarded more as a phytophage than a saprophage. This species overwinters as a puparium (Cadou, pers.comm. and Dussaix, 2013). But the duration of the puparial phase, for non-overwintering puparia, originating in larvae from the spring generation of adults, is 2 weeks (Dussaix, 2013). The general appearance of the puparium is shown in the coloured photo provided by Dussaix (2013).


Rotheray (1994)

Dusek & Laska (1988)


Dussaix, 2013

Wolton & Luff (2016).



Ricarte et al, 2007


Hartley (1961) // Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999)

Dusek & Laska (1988)

Stuke, 2000

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)  //   Ricarte et al, 2007

Dusek & Laska (1988)

Stuke, 2000

Dusek & Laska (1988)

Dusek & Laska (1988)


Dussaix, 2013


Wolton (2016).

Ferdinandea fumipennis Kassebeer, 1999 features of the larva and puparium are described and figured by Ricarte et al (2007), from material collected from a sap-run on the trunk of live Quercus pyrenaica. Ricarte et al (2010) also report a female of F.fumipennis observed ovipositing in a sap-run on Q.pyrenaica, in April.


Ricarte et al, 2007


Ricarte et al, 2007

Ferdinandea ruficornis (Fabricius), 1775

not described, but has been reared from sappy material in the burrows of Cossus cossus caterpillars in Quercus. Kruger (1926) found the puparium of this species in soil at the base of a Populus attacked by Cossus larvae. Ricarte et al (2010) report collection of a number of specimens of F.ruficornis in an emergence trap covering a tree hole into which a sap-run was flowing, on the trunk of Quercus pyrenaica. Bartsch et al (2009b) refer to the adults as being found on the trunks of Aesculus, Betula and Populus tremula. 




Stuke, 2000





Hammerschmidtia ferruginea (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991) and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994), from larvae and puparia collected from sappy material under the bark of recently fallen aspen (Populus tremula), of more than 25cm diameter. The larva is also figured in colour by Bartsch et al (2009a). The larvae may be distinguished from larvae of some Brachyopa species by the key in Rotheray (1994). Krivosheina, M.A. (2003a) provides a key for separation of the larva of H.ferruginea from the larva of H. rufa. Rotheray and MacGowan (2000) suggest that stands of aspen of less than 5ha extent are unlikely to be able to maintain populations of this species, due to its requirement for a constantly renewed resource of recently-dead trees.That recently-dead trees of P.tremula are significant in maintaining H.ferruginea populations, is reiterated by Rotheray et al (2009). However, they also indicate that this syrphid can survive at lower populations densities using sap runs on living P.tremula as larval microhabitat.

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray (1991) and MacGowan, 1997


Bartsch et al (2009)

Rotheray (1991)



Krivosheina (2003b)


Hammerschmidtia
rufa (Fallen) 1817

= H. ingrica
larva described and figured by Krivosheina, M.A. (2003a), who also provides a key to separate the larvae of the two European Hammerschmidtia species. Found under the bark of various trees: Juglans manshurica, Populus (inc.P.tremula), Ulmus and, in Asia Chosenia and Maackia (M.A.Krivosheina, pers.comm.). Polevoi et al (2018) report collection of a number of specimens of this species by an emergence trap installed on a broken trunk of Populus tremula in Karelia. Skevington et al (2019) state “larvae have been found under the bark of recently fallen aspen, elm, walnut and willow”.



Krivosheina (2003)


Krivosheina (2003)



Helophilus affinis Wahlberg, 1844 not described. 

Helophilus bottnicus Wahlberg, 1844 not described. 

Helophilus continuus Loew, 1854

not described. 

Helophilus groenlandicus (Fabricius), 1780 not described. 

Helophilus hybridus Loew, 1846 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), from larvae collected from decaying rhizomes of Typha, in a pond. This species has also been collected in numbers from emergence traps installed over beds of Glyceria maxima, in a seasonally temporary pool.



Bagachanova (1990)

Hartley (1961)


Bagachanova (1990)

Helophilus lapponicus Wahlberg, 1844
not described, but probably in pools and ditches (Nielsen, 1997). 

Helophilus pendulus (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961) and illustrated in colour (apparently from a preserved specimen) by Rotheray (1994). The living larva and the puparium are shown in colour by Dussaix (2013). Larvae occur in standing water of ponds (including garden ponds), canals, wet ditches, open tree hollows and garden water butts and in sub-aqueous decaying vegetable matter such as cow-dung, wet compost heaps and slurry pits. Dussaix (2013) observes that the duration of the puparial phase varies with the generation, more than 4 weeks for puparia from overwintering larvae, but less than 2 weeks for puparia from non-overwintering larvae.

Dussaix, 2013


Dusek & Laska (1961)

 

Hartley (1961)


Dusek & Laska (1961)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Dusek & Laska (1961)


Dussaix, 2013

Hartley (1961)

Helophilus trivittatus (Fabricius), 1805 = H. parallelus apparently still undescribed, although larvae have been reared by Dolezil (1972) from eggs laid on a hay infusion in water. The eggs were laid in batches of 100-150 over a period of a week in September. Some of the larvae kept in the laboratory pupated in November, but the others, kept outdoors until frosts commenced and then in a cool cellar, pupated from 21 April onwards in the next year. The puparial phase lasted 2 weeks. The larva has also been found in liquid mud with a high organic content of animal dung and rotting vegetation. Bagachanova (1990) observed oviposition on plants bordering shallow water enriched by organic material and notes that the eggs of this species float in water. From rearing the species under laboratory conditions she established that H.trivittatus overwinters as a larva.


Dolezil (1972)

Bagachanova (1990)

Dolezil (1972)


Bagachanova (1990)

Heringia adpropinquans (Becker), 1908
not described. 

Heringia heringi (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva described and figured by Dusek and Laska (1959); larval biology described by Dusek and Kristek (1967), Kurir (1963) and Rojo et al (1999); the larvae are predators of gall-making or leaf-curling aphids or psyllids on various trees, e.g. Populus and Ulmus, fruit trees e.g. Malus, Prunus spp., Pyrus, shrubs e.g. Laurus, Pistachio and live within the aphid galls, one larva per gall being normal. Ball and Morris (2013) provide a coloured illustration of the larva of H. heringi with its aphid prey, within a gall on Populus. In the case of Laurus nobilis, Rojo et al (1999) observed that it was characteristically the young plants, less than 1m tall, on which H.heringi larvae were found. Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1997) established that from oviposition to production of a puparium takes three weeks and that the adult hatches from the puparium after two weeks, during the summer. The larvae overwinter in diapause, which ends in April/May.

Dussaix, 2013


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1959)

 

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)



Dussaix, 2013

Ischiodon aegyptius (Wiedemann), 1830 developmental stages described and figured by Tawfik et al (1974); an aphid predator on low-growing plants and shrubs, including various crops, e.g. cotton, maize, squashes. Marcos-Garcia (pers.comm.) has reared this species from a larva collected on Euphorbia obtusifolia in the Canary Isles. Laska et al (2006) provide a key for separation of the last instar larvae and puparia of I. aegyptius and I. scutellaris, and also describe their diagnostic features.






Tawfik et al (1974)
Ischiodon scutellaris (Fabricius), 1805 described (as Sphaerophoria scutellaris) by Lal and Gupta (1953), who found larvae on various low-growing and tall herbaceous plants, including lianas. They remark that they found larvae frequently on crops of mustard (Sinapis alba). Laska et al (2006) provide a key for separation of the last instar larvae and puparia of I. aegyptius and I. scutellaris, and also describe their diagnostic features.

+ Kumar et al, 1987



Kumar et al, 1987


Lal & Gupta (1953)






Lal & Gupta (1953)

Kumar et al, 1987


Lal & Gupta (1953)

Ischyroptera bipilosa Pokorny, 1887

not described. 




Katara connexa Vujić & Radenković, 2018

not described.


Lapposyrphus lapponicus (Zetterstedt), 1838 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974). According to Kula (1980) the larvae may be found at all heights above the ground in spruce (Picea) trees and can overwinter among litter on the forest floor. Laska and Stary (1980) reared L.lapponicus from aphids on Euonymus and Fagus. According to Skevington et al (2019) the larvae “feed on aphids and adelgids on Abies, Cedrus, Euonymus, Fagus, Gleditsia triacanthos, Larix, Malus, Picea, Pinus, Prenanthes purpurea and Rhododendron”.

+ Mitchell, 1962

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Mitchell, 1962

Mitchell, 1962

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Mitchell, 1962


Mitchell, 1962


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Mitchell, 1962

Lejogaster metallina (Fabricius), 1781 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1994) and by Hartley (1961); aquatic, occurring among plant roots just at the level of the water surface, along the edge of slowly running water.




Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994


Hartley (1961)
Lejogaster tarsata (Meigen), 1822 L.splendida larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1994) and by Hartley (1961), from larvae found among floating, decaying vegetation in a pond and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994).

 

 

Rotheray (1994)


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994


Hartley (1961)


Lejops vittatus (Meigen), 1822

Waitzbauer (1976) records that the eggs of this species are laid on the stems and leaves of emergent plants like Typha, the larvae falling into the water once hatched. The larvae apparently remain more-or-less at the water surface, in association with floating plants such as Lemna, for most of their development, but by the last instar have moved into the submerged organic ooze/mud at the bottom of the pond or ditch in which they are living.

Waitzbauer (1976) Pas d'illustration


Lejota korsakovi (Stackelberg), 1952 not described.

Lejota ruficornis (Zetterstedt), 1843

not described. The larva of a north American Lejota species was found by Metcalf (1913), under the bark of a rotten log. From the available data there is a high probability that the larvae of this species are associated with fallen timber (including small branches) of deciduous trees, partially-submerged in shallow water, and with wet wood partially rotted by Polyporaceae. Bartsch et al (2009b) suggest that, in Scandinavia, the larvae develop in rotting wood of Populus tremula.


Leucozona glaucia (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1962).














Dusek & Laska (1962)

Dusek & Laska (1962)

Dusek & Laska (1962)

 

Leucozona inopinata Doczkal, 2000

not described.



Leucozona laternaria (Muller), 1776 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a) from larvae collected on Angelica and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994).



 

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray, (1988b)


Leucozona lucorum (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1967) and figured in colour by Rotheray (1994); aphidophagous.


 

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1967)

Leucozona nigripila Mik, 1888
not described. 


Mallota cimbiciformis (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1989), who summarise data available on larval biology. The larva is also illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). Dussaix (2013) provides a coloured photo of the puparium. The rat-tailed larva is saprophagous, living in standing-water tree-holes in deciduous trees, e.g. Acer, Aesculus, Fagus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus, usually at some metres from the ground; the species apparently shows preference for cavities with narrow entrance holes. These holes can provide entry to central trunk cavities of considerable proportions. Mallota larvae have been found in these large cavities, when they are part filled with water, for instance by Dussaix (2005b). The larva of this species over-winters. Duration of the puparial phase is approximately 3 weeks (Dussaix, 2013).

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray (1994)



Dixon, 1960

Hartley (1961) // Maibach & Goeldlin (1989)

Krivosheina, 2002

Maibach & Goeldlin (1989)


Krivosheina, 2002

Krivosheina, 2002

Maibach & Goeldlin (1989)


Krivosheina, 2002
 
Krivosheina, 2002

Maibach & Goeldlin (1989)


Dussaix (site web)

Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 larva reared (Marcos-Garcia, 2006) from rot-holes in Fraxinus angustifolius and Quercus faginea; Micó et al (2010) add Q.pyrenaica and Q.rotundifolia to the list of trees hosting larvae, adding that rot-holes containing larvae were at heights of 1-2.5m from the ground. Lauriaut and Lair (2018) provide an account of rearing M. dusmeti from a deep, water-containing rot-hole in the trunk of an ancient, living Quercus suber. Larval and puparial features are described and figured by Ricarte et al (2007).

Sanchez-Galvan et al., 2017


Ricarte et al, 2007

Sanchez-Galvan et al., 2017

Ricarte et al, 2007

Lauriaut & Lair, 2018

Mallota eurasiatica Stackelberg, 1950 features of the larva and puparium are described by Kuznetzov and Kuznetzov (1995), based on puparia collected from rot-holes in Betula. Sivova & Mutin (2000) also found the larva of this species among wet material in a rot-hole on a young birch (Betula platyphylla Sukacz.). Svivova et al (1999) both describe and figure features of the larva and briefly describe the puparium, having reared the species from wet, sappy material under the bark of old, live Ulmus pumila. They state the species overwinters as a larva and that the insect remains in the puparium for 12-14 days. Features of the larva and puparium are again described and figured by Krivosheina (2002), from larvae collected in sap-run and wet rot-hole material on the trunk of a living tree of Ulmus propinqua Koidz.

Sivova & Mutin (2000) Pas d'illustration




Svivova et al (1999)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1995)

Krivosheina, 2002


Krivosheina, 2002

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1995)






Krivosheina, 2002



Krivosheina, 2002

Mallota fuciformis (Fabricius), 1794

undescribed, but bred from basal rot-holes containing wet tree humus in trunks of Quercus suber (C. Lauriaut, pers.comm.). 



Mallota megilliformis (Fallén), 1817
not described, but this species is closely associated with old trees old Populus and Ulmus damaged by Cossus (G. Popov, pers. comm.). 

Mallota rossica Portschinsky, 1877 not described. + Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)










Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)


Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)
Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871 not described.


Megasyrphus erraticus (L.), 1758 = M. annulipes larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1967) and Goeldlin (1974); recorded by Kula (1982) as overwintering among leaf litter on the floor of spruce (Picea) forest.

+ Láska, Mazánek & Bičík, 2013

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Dusek & Laska (1967)

Láska, Mazánek & Bičík, 2013


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Melangyna arctica (Zetterstedt), 1838 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a) from larvae collected on Alnus, and figured in colour and separated from larvae of some other Melangyna species in the keys of Rotheray (1994).

 

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1988a)

Melangyna barbifrons (Fallen), 1817

not described. 



Melangyna coei Nielsen, 1971
larva not described, but found on umbellifers (Bartsch et al, 2009). 

Melangyna compositarum (Verrall), 1873

not described. 



Melangyna ericarum (Collin), 1946

not described. 

Melangyna lasiophthalma (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974), who found larvae on yellow gentian; aphid-feeding. Figured in colour and separated from larvae of some other Melangyna species in the keys of Rotheray (1994). Egg: Chandler (1968).

 

Rotheray (1994)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974 

 

Melangyna lucifera Nielsen, 1980

not described. 



Melangyna pavlovskyi Violovitsh, 1956 not described. 

Melangyna quadrimaculata Verrall, 1873 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a), from larvae collected on Abies alba, and figured in colour and separated from larvae of some other Melangyna species in the keys of Rotheray (1994). This species apparently overwinters as a puparium.

 

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1988a)

Melangyna umbellatarum (Fabricius), 1794 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1967); aphid feeding. Figured in colour and separated from larvae of some other Melangyna species in the keys of Rotheray (1994). The larvae have been found on large umbellifers, Rumex and Betula (Bagachanova, 1990). Egg: Chandler (1968). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

 

Rotheray (1994)

Dusek & Laska, 1967 and Láska, Mazánek & Bičík, 2013



Melanogaster aerosa (Loew), 1843 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1994), who also provide means of distinguishing this larva from that of M.hirtella; to be found close to water, beneath the surface of semi-liquid mud heavily enriched by peat, in the vicinity of plant roots, where there is almost no water movement.



Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Melanogaster curvistylus Vujić & Stuke, 1998
not described. 

Melanogaster hirtella (Loew), 1843 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961); aquatic, associated with various aquatic plants, including Glyceria and Typha, whose aerenchyma is tapped by the larvae to provide their air supply; the larvae are to be found among plant roots, usually at the edge of running water, in the angle where the bank begins to rise away from the water level.

Hartley (1961)


Smith, 1989

Smith, 1989 // Dixon, 1960


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)


Rotheray & Gilbert, 2011


Hartley (1961)


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994
Melanogaster nigricans (Stackelberg), 1922 not described.

Melanogaster nigricans (Stackelberg), 1922

not described. 

Melanogaster nuda (Macquart), 1829 = Chrysogaster viduata larva described and figured by Hennig (1952) and Maibach and Goeldlin (1994); the larvae are to be found among plant roots, usually at the edge of running water, where the bank begins to rise above the water level.


+ Dusek & Laska (1960a)

 

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994


Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Hennig, 1952

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Melanogaster parumplicata (Loew), 1840

not described. 




Melanostoma certum Haarto & Ståhls, 2014

not described.



Melanostoma mellarium (Meigen), 1822

not described.

Melanostoma mellinum (L.), 1758

larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1960a); aphid-feeding, on a wide range of low-growing plants, including grasses. Dunn (1960) has been quoted as observing M. mellinum larvae predating the aphid Pemphigus bursarius on the roots of lettuce (Lactuca). But his paper only notes the presence of M. mellinum larvae on lettuce foliage in August/September, from which he infers that M. mellinum could predate P. bursarius. Discovery that larvae of M. scalare predate the larvae of other Diptera in woodland leaf litter (Wilkinson & Rotheray, 2017) suggests that larvae of M. mellinum might well do likewise in open ground habitats like grassland. Dziock (2002) reported that under laboratory conditions development (from egg-laying to hatching of adult) can take as little as 5-6 weeks in M. mellinum. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

Dusek & Laska (1960a) sans illustration

+  Metcalf (1916) + Heiss, 1938



Metcalf (1916)

Metcalf (1916)




Heiss, 1938

Metcalf (1916)
Melanostoma scalare (Fabricius), 1794 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1959), from a full-grown larva found on the trunk of an apricot tree; larvae seem to occur mostly in the litter layer or tussocks of grasses such as Dactylis. Wilkinson and Rotheray (2017) extracted M. scalare larvae from woodland leaf litter and demonstrate they can predate co-occurring larvae of other Diptera (Lonchopteridae, Lauxaniidae, Limoniidae) and are not obligate aphid feeders. Dziock (2005) notes that, in captive rearing experiments, M. scalare larvae choose to feed on aphid species which, in nature, would normally be tended by ants. Dziock (2002) reports that under laboratory conditions development (from egg-laying to hatching of adult) can take as little as 5-6 weeks in this species. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

 


Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1967)

 

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)
Melanostoma wollastoni Wakeham-Dawson, Franquinho-Aguiar, Smit, McCullough and Wyatt, 2004 not described.


Meligramma cincta (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1962) from larvae on Fagus; aphid-feeding; egg described by Chandler (1968). Figured in colour (as Melangyna cincta) and separated from larvae of some other Meligramma species in the keys of Rotheray (1994).

 

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1962)


Heiss, 1938


Dusek & Laska (1962)

Láska, Mazánek & Bičík, 2013




Heiss, 1938


Dusek & Laska (1962)



Heiss, 1938

Meligramma cingulata (Egger), 1860

not described.



Meligramma euchroma (Kowarz), 1885 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1959) and Goeldlin (1974); separated from related species in the keys of Rotheray (1994); aphid- feeding on trees and shrubs (e.g. Euonymus, Prunus), including fruit trees in orchards.

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)


 












Dusek & Laska (1959)

Láska, Mazánek & Bičík, 2013


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Morris, 1998

Meligramma guttata (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Dixon (1960), from larvae collected on Acer pseudoplatanus. Separated from larvae of some other Meligramma species in the keys of Rotheray (1994). Vockeroth(1980) provides a key for distinguishing the puparia of M.guttata and M.triangulifera.

Dixon, 1960



Meligramma triangulifera (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva figured in colour and separated from larvae of M.cincta and M.guttata in the keys of Rotheray (1994). The larva is also figured in colour by Bartsch et al (2009a) and Dussaix (2013). Vockeroth (1980) provides a key for distinguishing the puparia of M.guttata and M.triangulifera. Larvae are aphidophagous on tall herbs, deciduous shrubs and trees (Heiss, 1938, as Epistrophe cincta and E.triangulifera, according to Vockeroth, 1992), e.g. Betula, Cirsium, Prunus, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus. Dussaix (2005b) reports rearing the species from larvae found on Frangula alnus, Hydrangium and Sonchus. Dussaix (2013) provides a coloured photo of the puparium, and reports that duration of the puparial phase is approximately 10 days.

 

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Dixon, 1960



Dussaix, 2013


 

(Heiss, 1938, as Epistrophe cincta and E.triangulifera, according to Vockeroth, 1992)




Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974  // Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)


Dusek & Laska (1960a)  // Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dixon, 1960


Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Rotheray  & Gilbert (1989)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dussaix, 2013


Meliscaeva auricollis (Meigen), 1822 the larva and puparium are shown in colour by Dussaix (2013). Some of the literature references to description of the larva of this species are confused. According to Rotheray (1994) the larva of M.auricollis has a posterior respiratory process with a basal, sclerotised ring, which distinguishes it from the larva of M.cinctellus, where this ring is absent. However, according to Dixon (1960) it is the larva of M.cinctellus that has a basal, sclerotised ring to its posterior respiratory process, distinguishing it from the larva of M.auricollis, in which this ring is absent. Here, it is assumed that the determinations of Rotheray (1994) are correct and those of Dixon (1960) are incorrect, in which case the posterior respiratory process of the larva of M.auricollis is figured, in lateral view, by Dixon (1960), under the name M.cinstellus. Rotheray (1994) does not seem to be aware of the contradictions between the descriptions of the larva of M.auricollis provided by himself and Dixon (1960), because he quotes Dixon (1960) as the source of the information that M.auricollis has been reared from among aphids found on Sarrothamnus, which must relate to M.cinctellus if his definition of the larva of M.auricollis is correct. The larva of M.auricollis is aphid-feeding on trees (e.g. Castanea, Crataegus, Fagus), shrubs (e.g.Viburnum), lianas (e.g. Hedera) and tall herbaceous plants, including some crop species (Nicotiana, Triticum). It has also been found feeding on psyllids (Aphalaridae: Homoptera) on olive trees (Olea) by Rojo et al (1999), where larval development can take only 2 weeks and the adult hatches after a puparial phase lasting only 8-9 days. Dussaix (2013) reports puparial duration as 17 days. Jones (2001) reports rearing M.auricollis from Pemphigus (Aphididae) galls on Populus. The larva of this species may be separated from the larva of M.cinctella in the keys provided by Rotheray (1994). Kula (1982) records larvae of this species as overwintering among leaf litter on the floor of spruce (Picea) forest. Egg: Chandler (1968).

Dussaix, 2013

 

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974 // Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)

Scott  (1939)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

 

Scott  (1939)


Scott  (1939)



Dussaix (2013)

Meliscaeva cinctella (Zetterstedt), 1843 assuming that the definitions of the larvae of Meliscaeva species incorporated into Rotheray's (1994) keys are correct, the description of the larva of this species provided by Dixon (1960) relates to M.auricollis, and her description of the larva of M.auricollis relates to M.cinctellus (see also notes relating to the larva of M.auricollis, in the account of that species). Branquart (1999) provides extensive information on the developmental stages of this species under laboratory conditions, and shows that development time (from egg-laying to eclosion of adult) can be as little as 4 weeks. The larva is aphid feeding, on bushes, shrubs, for example Sarrothamnus - Dixon (1960) as M.auricollis - and trees, e.g. Fagus; Kula (1982) records larvae of this species as overwintering among leaf litter on the floor of spruce (Picea) forest.

Dixon, 1960

 

Dixon, 1960


Scott  (1939)



Scott  (1939)

Scott  (1939)




Merodon aberrans Egger, 1860

not described.



Merodon aeneus Meigen,  1822
= M. aureus
puparium described and figured by Preradovic et al (2018), collected from within the soil, in the vicinity of bulbs of Ornithogalum umbellatum, but where bulbs of Muscari and Gagea species and corms of Crocus, were also present. Merodon aeneus is frequently found in localities where Ornithogalum is absent and more often found where Crocus is present, so more direct information on which of these plants hosts its larvae would be useful.



Preradovic et al (2018)


Preradovic et al (2018)
Merodon abruzzensis (van der Goot), 1969 not described.

Merodon adriaticus Veselić, Vujić & Radenković, 2017 not described.

Merodon aeneus Meigen, 1822

not described.



Merodon alagoezicus Paramonov, 1925 not described.

Merodon albifasciatus Macquart, 1842 not described.

Merodon albifrons Meigen, 1822

not described. 



Merodon alexandri Popov, 2010
not described, but evidently bulb-feeding in Hyacinthaceae (Popov, 2010).

Merodon ambiguus Bradescu, 1986 not described. 

Merodon analis Meigen, 1822 not described.
+
Langlois D &  Speight M. C. D. (2022)




Langlois D &  Speight M. C. D. (2022)


Langlois D &  Speight M. C. D. (2022)
Merodon andriotes Vujić, Radenković & Šašić, in Radenković et al, 2018 not described. 

Merodon annulatus (Fabricius), 1794

not described. 



Merodon antonioi Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 not described. 

Merodon armipes Rondani, 1843

not described. This species is apparently associated with the tassel hyacinth, Muscari (Liliaceae) in southern Germany (Doczkal, pers. comm.). Ornithogalum is almost certainly an alternative host. 

Merodon arundanus Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 not described. 

Merodon atratus (Oldenberg), 1919

not described. 



Merodon atricapillatus Šašić, Ačanski & Vujić, in Šašić et al, 2018 not described. 

Merodon aurifer Loew, 1862 not described. 

Merodon auripes Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon auronitens Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon avidus (Rossi), 1790 : M. avidus Taxon A sensu Milankov et al (2001) the larva is described by Andrić et al (2014), who collected it from bulbs of Ornithogalum umbellatum and identified it using molecular taxonomic techniques, without rearing, using genetic data from adults of M. avidus. A more detailed description, again from larvae and puparia associated with Ornithogalum umbellatum, is provided by Preradovic et al (2018).


Preradovic et al, 2018


Andric et al., 2014

Andric et al., 2014

Preradovic et al, 2018

Merodon balkanicus Šašić, Ačanski & Vujić, in Šašić et al, 2016 not described. 

Merodon bessarabicus Paramonov, 1924 not described. 

Merodon cabanerensis Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 not described. 

Merodon caerulescens Loew, 1869 not described. 

Merodon calcaratus (Fabricius), 1794

not described, but Van Eck (2016a) provides circumstantial evidence suggesting the larval host plant could be Scilla autumnalis.
Merodon caudatus Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon chalybeatus Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon chalybeus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822 not described. 

Merodon cinereus (Fabricius), 1794

undescribed, but very probably associated with spring-flowering Crocus. 



Merodon clavipes (Fabricius), 1781

not described. 



Merodon clunipes Sack, 1913

not described. 



Merodon confusus Marcos-García, Vujić, Ricarte & Ståhls, 2011

not described. 



Merodon constans (Rossi), 1794

not described. The developmental described and figured by Ricarte et al (2008) as those of M. constans are shown by Andric et al (2014) to belong to the N African species M. hurkmansi. Circumstantial evidence suggests the larvae of M. constans may be associated with Colchicum. 

+J.J. Orengo-Green, A. Ricarte, M. Hauser et al., 2024



J.J. Orengo-Green, A. Ricarte, M. Hauser et al., 2024


J.J. Orengo-Green, A. Ricarte, M. Hauser et al., 2024


J.J. Orengo-Green, A. Ricarte, M. Hauser et al., 2024


J.J. Orengo-Green, A. Ricarte, M. Hauser et al., 2024

Merodon crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925

not described. 



Merodon crypticus Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 not described. 

Merodon cupreus Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon desuturinus Vujic, Simic, & Radenkovic, 1995 not described. 

Merodon distinctus Palma, 1863

not described. 



Merodon dobrogensis Bradescu, 1982
not described. This species seems to have a close relationship with Prospero autumnale, with which its larvae may be associated.
Merodon dzhalitae Paramonov, 1927 not described. 

Merodon eques (Fabricius), 1805

not described, but reared from Narcissus by Hurkmans and De Goffau (1995) and Pehlivan and Akbulut (1991). 


Merodon equestris (Fabricius), 1794 larva described and figured by Hodson (1932b) and Heiss (1938) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); internal feeder in tissues of bulbs of Amaryllidaceae; regarded as a minor pest of horticulture e.g.in the culture of Narcissus. A comprehensive survey of the literature on the biology of M.equestris is provided by Barkemeyer (1994).

 

Colorado Insect of Interest


Rotheray (1994)

Smith, 1989

Morgan, 1970

Dusek & Laska (1961) // Dusek & Laska (1960a) and Heiss, 1938 and Hennig, 1952


Dusek & Laska (1961) // Ricarte et al (2008)

Rotheray & Gilbert, 2011

Stuke, 20000

 

Dusek & Laska (1961)


Dusek & Laska (1961)

Doucette et al, 1942
Merodon erivanicus Paramonov, 1925 not described. 

Merodon erymanthius Vujić, Ačanski & Šašić, in Radenković et al, 2018 not described. 

Merodon escorialensis Strobl, 1909 not described. 

Merodon euri Vujić & Radenković, in Radenković et al, 2018 not described. 

Merodon femoratoides Paramonov, 1925
not described. 

Merodon femoratus Sack, 1913

= M. biarcuatus

= M. elegans

not described. 



Merodon flavicornis (Macquart), 1842

not described. 



Merodon flavus Sack, 1913

not described, but very probably associated with Narcissus. 



Merodon funestus (Fabricius), 1794

not described. 



Merodon gallicusVujić & Radenković, 2012

not described. 



Merodon geniculatus Strobl, 1909 the puparium is described and figured by Ricarte et al (2017), who reared a series of specimens from bulbs of various species of Narcissus: N. dubius, N. rupicola, N. tazetta and N. triandrus ssp. pallidulus, all of which were collected from the field. Circumstantial evidence suggests one potential plant host for the larva of this species is the yellow autumn crocus Sternbergia lutea.


 

Ricarte et al.,  (2017)


Ricarte et al.,  (2017)

Ricarte et al.,  (2017)

Ricarte et al.,  (2017)

Merodon haemorrhoidalis Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon hakkariensis Vujić & Radenković, in Vujić et al, 2013 not described. 

Merodon hamifer Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon hayati Hurkmans in Hurkmans & Hayat, 1997 not described. 

Merodon hikmeti Hurkmans in Hurkmans & Hayat, 1997 not described. 

Merodon hoplitis Hurkmans, in Vujić et al, 2012 not described. 

Merodon hypochrysos Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon ibericus Vujíc, in Popović et al, 2015 not described. 

Merodon ilgazense Vujić, Marcos-Garcia, Saribiyik & Ricarte, 2011 not described. 

Merodon italicus Rondani, 1845 .  not described

Merodon kopensis Vujìc & Hayat, 2015 not described. 

Merodon lamellatus Vujić & Radenković, in Vujić et al, 2012 not described. 

Merodon latifemoris Radenković & Vujić, in Radenković et al, 2011 not described. 

Merodon legionensis Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 not described. 

Merodon loewi van der Goot, 1964

not described, but probably associated with Ornithogalum (Hurkmans, 1988). 


Merodon longispinus Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 not described. 

Merodon lucasi Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon luteihumerus Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 developmental stages described and figured by Ricarte et al (2008), from larvae collected in healthy bulbs of sea squill, Urginea maritima – the larvae of this species are apparently phytophagous, rather than saprophagous.




Ricarte et al (2008)

Ricarte et al (2008)

Merodon luteofasciatus Vujić, Radenković & Ståhls, in Vujić et al, 2018
not described, but larva reared from “Amaryllis” (Vujić et al, 2018a).

Merodon luteomaculatus Vujić, Ačanski & Šašić, in Radenković et al, 2018
not described. 

Merodon manicatus (Sack), 1938 not described. 

Merodon mariae Hurkmans, 1993

not described. 



Merodon megavidus Vujić & Radenković, in Ačanski et al, 2016 not described. 

Merodon minutus Strobl, 1893

not described. 



Merodon moenium (Wiedemann), 1822

undescribed, but seemingly with a number of alternative plant hosts occurring in different biotopes. Reemer and Goudsmits (2004) observed a female of “M.avida” ovipositing on the leaves of a flowering plant of Muscari, which could be one host plant.

Merodon nanus (Sack), 1931 not described. 

Merodon natans (Fabricius), 1794

not described. 



Merodon naxius Vujić & Šašić, in Radenković et al, 2018 not described. 

Merodon neofasciatus Ståhls & Vujić, in Vujić et al, 2018

not described, but reared from bulbs of Narcissus species and probably Sternbergia species (as “Amaryllis”) (Vujić et al, 2018a).
Merodon neolydicus Vujić, in Vujić, Radenković & Likov, 2018 not described. 

Merodon neonanus Vujić & Taylor, in Vujić et al, 2015 not described. 

Merodon nigripodus Vujić & Hayat, in Vujić et al, 2012
not described. 

Merodon nigritarsis Rondani, 1845

not described, but reared from the steppe hyacinth Hyacinthella pallasiana by Stepanenko and Popov (1997). The larva is strictly phytophagous (i.e. it feeds on healthy bulbs), apparently requires only one bulb to complete its development and overwinters as a larva, free in the soil. There is circumstantial evidence to suggest that Muscari racemosum can also act as a larval host for this species.

Merodon nisi Veselić, Vujić & Radenković, 2017 not described. 

Merodon nitidifrons Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon obscuritarsis Strobl in Czerny, 1909

not described. 



Merodon obstipus Vujić, Radenković & Likov, in Likov et al, 2019

not described. 

Merodon oidipous Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon ottomanus Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon ovaloides Vujić & Radenković, in Vujić et al, 2012 not described. 

Merodon papillus Vujić, Radenković and Pérez-Bañon , in Vujić et al, 2007 not described. 

Merodon parietum Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822

not described. 



Merodon peloponnesius Vujić, Radenković, Ačanski & Šašić, in Radenković et al, 2018 not described. 

Merodon planiceps Loew, 1862 not described. 

Merodon ponticus Vujić & Radenković, in Vujić et al, 2012 not described. 

Merodon portschinskyi Stackelberg, 1924 not described. 

Merodon pruni (Rossi), 1790

not described. 



Merodon pulveris Vujić & Radenković, in Radenković et al, 2011 not described. 

Merodon pumilus Macquart in Lucas, 1849 not described. 

Merodon puniceus Vujić, Radenković & Péres-Bañón, in Radenković et al , 2011 not described. 

Merodon quadraticus Vujić & Radenković, in Vujić et al 2013 not described. 

Merodon quadrinotatus (Sack), 1931 not described. 

Merodon quercetorum Marcos-García, Vujíc & Mengual, 2007 not described. 

Merodon rasicus Vujić & Radenković, in Vujić et al, 2015 not described. 

Merodon robustus Veselić, Vujić & Radenković, 2017 not described. 

Merodon rojoi Radenković & Vujić, in Šašić et al, 2019

not described. 

Merodon rubidiventris Costa, 1884 not described.

Merodon ruficornis Meigen, 1822

not described. 



Merodon rufipes Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon rufus Meigen, 1838 a puparium without associated plant host data, but with the male insect that emerged from it, preserved in the collections of the Bavarian State Museum, in Munich, forms the basis of a description and figures of the puparium of this species, in Preradović et al (2018). This species is characteristically found in association with Anthericum liliago (Liliaceae), which must be considered a probable host plant


 













Preradovic et al, 2018

Merodon sapphous Vujić, Pérez-Bañon and Radenković, in Vujić et al, 2007 not described. 

Merodon satdagensis Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon schachti Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon segetum (Fabricius), 1794 not described. 

Merodon serrulatus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822

not described. 



Merodon spinitarsis Paramonov, 1929 not described. 

Merodon splendens Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon taniniensis Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon telmateia Hurkmans, 1987 not described. 

Merodon tener Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon teruelensis (van der Goot), 1966

not described. 



Merodon testaceoides Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon testaceus Sack, 1913 not described. 

Merodon toscanus Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon trebevicensis Strobl, 1900 not described. 

Merodon tricinctus Sack, 1913

not described. 



Merodon trochantericus Costa, 1884 undescribed. It has been postulated that one of the larval host plants of this species is Scilla autumnalis
Merodon turcicus Vujić & Hayat, in Vujić et al, 2012 not described. 

Merodon unguicornis Strobl in Czerny and Strobl, 1909 not described. 

Merodon unicolor Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909

not described. 



Merodon vandergooti Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 

Merodon velox Loew, 1869 not described. 

Merodon virgatus Vujić & Radenković, in Šašić et al, 2016 not described. 

Merodon vladimiri Vujić & Tubić, in Tubić et al, 2018 not described. 

Merodon warnckei Hurkmans, 1993 not described. 


Mesembrius peregrinus (Loew), 1846

not described. 




Microdon analis (Macquart), 1842 the larval hosts of this species have until recently been given as ants of the genera Formica and Lasius. However, Schmid (2004a) points out that two cryptic Microdon species have been confused under the name M.analis, one (M.major) apparently associated with ants of the genus Formica, the other (M.analis) with Lasius species. In the detailed description of the larva and puparium of “M.eggeri” provided by Hartley (1961) there is no reference to the ants with which the described Microdon developmental stages occurred. However, from the information supplied by Schmid (2004a) it can be concluded that Hartley's (1961) description is not based on M.major. Barr (1995) explicitly states that his observations of “M.eggeri” larvae were based on nests of Formica lemani. But re-examination of Barr’s Microdon material shows that, whatever it is, it is not M.major. Available information suggests that when M.analis occurs in nests of ants of the genus Lasius, it may only occur with L.platythorax, a recently-recognised segregate of L.niger, an ant that normally nests in rotten wood (and hence occurs in forested locations). The mature larva, which occurs superficially in ants' nests just prior to pupariation in April, is more easily found than the adult insect. Similarly, the presence of this species can be detected by locating empty puparia in ants' nests. These empty puparia can persist for some months, at least. Larvae of M.analis can be distinguished from larvae of the other known European species except M.major by the keys in Doczkal & Schmid (1999). Developmental stages of M.analis and M.major can be distinguished using the features detailed by Schmid (2004a) and the key presented in the StN Keys volume may be used to separate the puparia of these two species.


Hartley (1961) M. eggeri

Dixon, 1960  M. eggeri


Rotheray (1994)

Reemer M, Stahls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae). ZooKeys 288: 14213. doi: 10.3897/Z00keys.288.4095 : M.analis = M.eggeri


Dussaix, 2013

Reemer et (2009)

Hartley (1961) // Hartley (1963)

Comme M. eggeri





Doczkal & Schmid (1999) ; Schmid, 2004a

Barr (1995) M. eggeri


Scarparo et al. (2020)

Hartley (1961)






Andries (1912) & Schmid, 2004 Comme M. eggeri

Scarparo et al. (2020): Anterior spiracular tubercles of puparia


Dussaix et al (2007)

Dussaix, 2013
Microdon devius (L.), 1761 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991) and puparium figured in colour by Rotheray (1994), from larvae collected from nests of the ant Lasius flavus. Distinguished from larvae of the other 3 European species by the keys in Doczkal & Schmid (1999).

 

Rotheray (1994)

Dixon, 1960

 Doczkal & Schmid (1999)

Scarparo et al. (2020)


Rotheray (1991)

Scarparo et al. (2020): Anterior spiracular tubercles of puparia

Scarparo et al. (2020)

Microdon major Andries, 1912 the information currently available (see Schmid, 2004) suggests that the larva of M.major occurs with ants of the genera Formica and Lasius. Schmid (2004) confirmed occurrence with the "red" Formica rufa group species F.exsecta, F.rufa and F.sanguinea and also with the "black" species F.fusca. In contrast, the closely-related M.analis appears to be associated primarily with Lasius species, notably L.platythorax. The differences between M.analis and M.major puparia, although small, are distinct, and can be recognised in Microdon puparia that have been collected complete with their posterior spiracular processes. Re-examination of such puparia, with which specimens of the associated ant host have been maintained, demonstrates clearly that M.major-type puparia can be found with Formica fusca and F.sanguinea, whereas M.analis-type puparia are found with L.platythorax. The habitat range of M.major must remain poorly defined until more bred material is available. Dussaix et al (2007) record empty puparia of M.major from an abandoned ants’ nest in a tree stump (tree species unknown) in a large area of acidic flush vegetation being invaded by conifers. Features distinguishing the developmental stages of M.major and M.analis are detailed by Schmid (2004a). The general appearance of M.analis/M.major larvae is shown in the coloured illustration (as M.eggeri) provided by Rotheray (1994). Photographs of the puparia of M.analis and M.major are provided by Dussaix et al (2007).



Schmid, 2004

Andries (1912) // Schmid, 2004 comme Microdon eggeri var. major


Dussaix et al (2007)
Microdon miki Doczkal & Schmid, 1999 larval mouthparts and puparium described and figured by Doczkal & Schmid (1999). The larva has been found in association with mound-building ants of the Formica rufa group (probably F.lugubris). Distinguished from larvae of the other 3 European species by the keys in Doczkal & Schmid (1999).

 


Doczkal & Schmid (1999)








Doczkal et al, 2016




Doczkal & Schmid (1999)

Doczkal & Schmid (1999)
Microdon mutabilis (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Andries (1912); some features redefined by Schönrogge et al (2002a); mouthparts figured by Barr (1995) and Doczkal & Schmid (1999); general form of the puparium shown in colour by Rotheray (1994). Many beautiful illustrations of the morphology of the developmental stages of M. mutabilis are provided by Scarparo et al (2017). Dixon's (1960) description and figures of M.mutabilis developmental stages are erroneous. The larva lives as a predator of ant larvae in nests of Formica lemani (Schönrogge et al (2002a), Formica cunicularia (Van de Meutter, 2015; Scarparo et al, 2017) and Formica cinerea. Also, M. mutabilis probably lives with Lasius niger, though the latter ant host requires confirmation. Barr (1995) notes that the larvae feed mostly at night, while the ants are inactive. Schönrogge et al (2006) establish that, under laboratory conditions, the larvae of M. mutabilis feed preferentially on the eggs and small larvae of their host ant and take 2 years to complete larval development. The keys to larvae of Microdon species provided in Rotheray (1994) and Doczkal & Schmid (1999) were produced prior to recognition of the cryptic species M. myrmicae. Schönrogge et al (2002a) provide features distinguishing the larva and puparium of M.mutabilis sensu Schönrogge et al (2002a,b) from larvae and puparia of M.myrmicae. The StN Keys to Species volume includes a key to the puparia of European Microdon species, including M. myrmicae.

 


Scarparo et al., 2017


Rotheray (1994)


Andries (1912) Like M. rhenanus



Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999)


Rotheray & Gilbert (2011)


Doczkal & Schmid (1999)

Schmid, 2004

Barr (1995)



Andries (1912)


Scarparo et al., 2017

Scarparo et al. (2020)

Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999


Schönrogge et al., 2002a
Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Beuker, 2004



Andries (1912) M. mutabilis / M. rhenanus

Scarparo et al. (2020) : Anterior spiracular tubercles of puparia

Scarparo et al., 2017



Microdon myrmicae Schönrogge et al, 2002 larval and puparial features are figured by Schönrogge et al (2002a). Gammelmo and Aarvik (2007) provide high quality coloured photographs of the last instar larva, the puparium and the anterior spiracular processes of the puparium. Wolton (2011) similarly provides photographs of the egg, first instar larva and second instar larva. See StN Keys volume for a key separating the puparium of M.myrmicae from the puparia of other European Microdon species. Schönrogge et al (2002a) established that M.myrmicae lives in nests of the ant Myrmica scabrinodis, in wet situations (available information suggests that the ant occurs in a much wider range of habitats than M.myrmicae, though this situation could change as M.myrmicae becomes better known). The developmental stages of M.myrmicae have been found with this ant in tussocks of grasses (Molinia), moss (including Sphagnum), rush (Juncus) and sedge (Carex). A coloured photo of typical M.myrmicae habitat is provided by Gammelmo and Aarvik (2007). Apparently (Bonelli et al, 2011) M.myrmicae can occur with Myrmica vandeli Bondroit, which is parasitic upon M.scabrinodis and replaces it, such that erstwhile M.scabrinodis nests in wetland can quite rapidly become M.vandeli nests (Elmes et al, 2003). Stankiewicz (2003) confirms the occurrence of M.myrmicae with species of Myrmica other than M.scabrinodis, namely M.gallienii and M. rubra. Wolton (2011) also found M.myrmicae larvae in nests of Myrmica ruginodis. To this host list Tartally et al (2013) add Myrmica aloba Forel. Bonelli et al (2011) found that M.myrmicae can be equally abundant in nests of Myrmica gallienii and M.scabrinodis at localities where both ants occur. The second and third instar larvae are clearly predators of ant larvae (they evidently ignore eggs and pupae). But Wolton (2011) successfully fed first instar larvae on debris from within nest tunnels of M.scabrinodis, in the absence of ant brood, rearing one through to the second instar. The first instar M.myrmicae larvae were observed to ignore ant larvae. The puparia of M.myrmicae tend to be found in the uppermost galleries of the ant in the highest part of the nest, just below to outer layer of vegetation roofing the nest. The same Myrmica species used as hosts by Microdon myrmicae are used as hosts by the larvae of Maculinea (Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera) species. Witek et al (2013) demonstrate that co-habitation in Myrmica nests by Microdon and Maculinea larvae can occur without detriment to either brood predator, apparently because their larvae are exploiting the resources of the ants’ nest at different times of the year.

 

Gammelmo & Aarvik, 2007


Witek et al., 2012

Neumeyer & Dobler Gross, 2012

Schmid, 2004


Scarparo et al. (2020)

Beuker, 2004

Schönrogge et al., 2002a


Scarparo et al. (2020) : Anterior spiracular tubercles of puparia

Gammelmo & Aarvik, 2007

Gammelmo & Aarvik, 2007


Neumeyer & Dobler Gross, 2012

Beuker, 2014

Milesia crabroniformis (Fabricius), 1775

Matile and Leclercq (1992) described what they believed to be the puparium of this species, collected from debris in an old Fagus. However, Maibach (pers.comm.) has pointed out that the puparium they figure appears to be that of a species of Eristalini. Indeed, it resembles the puparium of Mallota cimbiciformis. Certainly, its characteristics do not conform to those of the larva of another Milesia species, M.virginiensis, as figured in colour by Rotheray (1994). The female of M.crabroniformis has been seen ovipositing in the bark at the base of an old, living Quercus that was largely hollow and filled with a metre of tree humus. 

+ Orengo-Green J.J. et al. (2023)






Orengo-Green J.J. et al. (2023)



Orengo-Green J.J. et al. (2023)

Milesia semiluctifera (Villers), 1798

not described. 




Myathropa florea (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961) and Rotheray (1994) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); puparium illustrated in colour by Dussaix (2013); larva aquatic, frequent in standing-water rot-holes and in water-filled hollows among tree-roots, on tree stumps or at the junction between major branches and trunk, from ground level to high in the tree (at least 10m). The larva has been found in association with various deciduous trees, including Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Fagus, Populus and Quercus, and especially with Fagus, but also with conifers, e.g. Pinus sylvestris (Dussaix, 2005b). Larvae can also develop in wet cow dung and compost heaps. Whether the species can also use silage effluent and/or manure heaps is uncertain. Although larval development can be rapid (some months only) it may take two or more years. Larval biology of this species is reviewed by Rotheray (1994). Greig (1989) provides details of overwintering by Myathropa larvae, suggesting their main cause of mortality is the drying-up of many rot-holes toward the end of the winter. Dussaix (2013) observes that duration of the puparial phase is more than 3 weeks, for puparia derived from overwintering larvae, but 2 weeks for puparia from non-overwintering larvae. Sánchez-Galván et al (2014) show that successful development of larvae of M. florea in a trunk cavity can be enhanced by the presence there of the faeces of saproxylic Coleoptera.

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1994)



Dusek, J. & Laska, P. (1959)


Reemer et (2009)

Hartley (1961)


Rotheray (1994)



Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)




Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Dusek & Laska (1960a) // Hartley (1961)



Dusek & Laska  (1959)


Dussaix, 2013
Myathropa usta (Wollaston), 1859
undescribed, but most probably like M. florea, aquatic in standing-water, rot-holes and in water-filled hollows among tree roots (J.T.Smit, pers.comm.).



Myolepta difformis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909 larval and puparial features are described and figured by Ricarte et al (2007), from material collected from water-containing rot-holes in the trunk of ancient, live Fraxinus angustifolia along the edge of a river within Quercus pyrenaica forest. Sánchez-Galván et al (2014) provide information suggesting that a pre-requisite for development of larvae of M. difformis in a trunk cavity may be the presence there of larvae of saproxylic beetles, citing the Iberian saproxylic cetoniid Cetonia aurataeformis, whose faeces are known to be rich in accessible nutrients (Micó et al, 2011).




Ricarte et al, 2007

Ricarte et al, 2007
Myolepta dubia (Fabricius), 1805 = M. luteola larva described and figured by Dusek and Laska (1960), based on larvae from a wet tree hole in Populus italica; described and figured by Hartley (1961) from larvae collected in a small, wet rot hole in the trunk of an overmature Fagus; also reared from a water-filled rot-hole in the trunk of a live Fagus by Dussaix (1997a); illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); puparium shown in colour by Dussaix (2013). Larvae have also been found May in a water-filled cavity beneath the bark of the trunk of a mature Acer, larvae of three distinct sizes being found together, indicating that this species requires more than one year to complete its development. This species overwinters as a larva. Dussaix (2013) reports that duration of the puparial phase is two and a half weeks.

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1994)

Dusek & Laska (1960b)

Hartley (1961)

Dusek & Laska (1960b) // Dusek & Laska (1960a)


Hartley (1961) // Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Rotheray & Gilbert, 2011

Dusek & Laska (1960b)


Hartley (1961)

Dusek & Laska (1960b)

Dussaix, 1913

Myolepta nigritarsis Coe 1957

not described; the female has been observed investigating a small sap run on the trunk of Quercus ithaburensis.


Myolepta obscura Becher, 1882
described (and compared with the larva of probably M.dubia), from a larva collected in a wet tree hole in Populus, by Becher (1882); larval and puparial features redescribed and figured by Ricarte et al (2007), from material reared from a water-filled rot-hole in the trunk of an ancient, live Fraxinus angustifolia.


 




















Ricarte et al., 2007
Myolepta potens (Harris), 1776 described and figured by Rotheray (1991), from larvae collected from a rot-hole at the base of Fagus.


Rotheray (1991)


Myolepta trojana Reemer, Hauser and Speight, 2005
not described. 

Myolepta vara (Panzer), 1798 larval features are described and figured by Svivova et al (1999), who reared M.vara from wet rot-holes in old, live Ulmus pumila. The species has also been reared from a tree-humous filled cavity in the trunk of a recently-felled Quercus by Dussaix (1997b), who illustrates the puparium.

Svivova et al (1999)

Svivova et al (1999)


Dussaix, 1997

Neoascia annexa (Muller), 1776 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1993), from larvae and puparia collected from water-sodden vegetable debris beside streams in Fagus/Picea forest.



Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993
Neoascia balearensis Kassebeer, 2002
not described. 

Neoascia geniculata (Meigen), 1822

= N. floralis

larva and puparium apparently described and figured by Lundbeck (1916), but redescription is required, in comparison with the developmental stages of other Neoascia species.



Lundbeck (1916)


Lundbeck (1916)
Neoascia interrupta (Meigen), 1822 features of the larva and puparium are described and figured by Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1994), but without any information on larval biology or habitat.



Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Neoascia meticulosa (Scopoli), 1763 larvae and puparia described and figured by Hartley (1961) and Maibach and Goeldlin (1993); aquatic; may be found beneath the outer leaves of rotting Typha stems, below the water surface.


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993

Hartley (1961) // Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993

Neoascia obliqua Coe, 1940

undescribed, but Reemer et al (2009) report that larvae of N.obliqua have been found in stems of Petasites hybridus, in tunnels made by larvae of another syrphid, Cheilosia canicularis. 

Neoascia pavlovskii Stackelberg, 1955
not described.

Neoascia podagrica (Fabricius), 1775 larva figured in colour by Bartsch et al (2009a) and Dussaix (2013); described and figured by Hartley (1961) and Maibach and Goeldlin (1993) from larvae in cow dung and compost; sub-aquatic, occurring in cow-dung, slurry and dung-enriched mud etc; recorded by Dusek and Laska (1962) living with larvae of Cheilosia canicularis in roots of Petasites species, though there must be some doubt as to whether this records refers to N.obliqua (see under N.obliqua). Puparium shown in colour by Dussaix (2013), who also notes that the puparial phase lasts for 1-2 weeks.

 

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1962)

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993


Dussaix, 2013


Bartsch et al (2009)

Dusek & Laska (1962)


Rotheray (1994) // Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Dusek & Laska (1962)














Hartley (1961)

 

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993


Hartley (1961) //  Dusek & Laska (1962)

Dusek & Laska (1962)

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993


Dussaix (site web)

Neoascia subannexa Claussen & Hayat, 1997
not described. 

Neoascia subchalybea Curran, 1925 not described.

Neoascia tenur (Harris), 1780 larvae and puparia described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1993), from puparia collected at around the level of the water-surface, within stem sheaths of dead Typha, in a slow-moving stream.


 

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1993

Neoascia unifasciata (Strobl), 1898

not described.




Neocnemodon brevidens (Egger), 1865

not described.



Neocnemodon fulvimanus (Zetterstedt), 1843 not described.

Neocnemodon larusi (Vujić), 1999 not described.

Neocnemodon latitarsis (Egger), 1865 larva described and figured by Dusek and Laska (1960); found by Laska and Stary (1980) feeding on aphids on Abies, Malus, Populus and Ulmus.

Dusek & Laska (1960)


Dusek & Laska (1960)

Dusek & Laska (1960b)

Dusek & Laska (1960)

Dusek & Laska (1960)


Dusek & Laska (1960)

Neocnemodon pubescens (Delucchi & Pschorn-Walcher), 1955

undescribed, but Kula (1980) records the larva of this species as overwintering on the forest floor in Picea forest.


Neocnemodon verrucula (Collin), 1931 not described.

Neocnemodon vitripennis (Meigen), 1822 = C. dreyfusiae

larva predatory on adelgid plant bugs; described and figured by Delucchi et al (1957), from larvae collected on Abies. The species has also been reared from larvae found feeding on coccids on Populus and aphids on Malus (Evenhuis, 1959). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).



 

Delucchi et al (1957)



Delucchi et al (1957)


Orthonevra auritarsis Bradescu, 1992 not described.

Orthonevra brevicornis Loew, 1843 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1994); illustrated in colour (apparently from a preserved specimen) by Rotheray (1994). Nötzold (2000) records collection of an individual of this species from an emergence trap installed in a reed bed.

 

Rotheray (1994)

 `


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Hartley (1961)

Orthonevra elegans (Meigen), 1822

not described.



Orthonevra erythrogona (Malm), 1863
larva not described, but has been found in wet mud containing a high proportion of dung and plant remains. 

Orthonevra frontalis (Loew), 1843

not described.



Orthonevra gemmula Violovitsh, 1979 not described.

Orthonevra geniculata (Meigen), 1830

larva not described, but almost certainly associated with springs and wet flushes.



Orthonevra intermedia Lundbeck, 1916 not described.

Orthonevra montana Vujić, 1999 not described.

Orthonevra nobilis (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1994), associated with springs and flushes, where it occurs in wet, organically-enriched mud.



Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994
Orthonevra onytes (Seguy), 1961 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1994); found among plant roots beside seepages in unimproved alpine grassland.



Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Orthonevra plumbago (Loew), 1840 not described.

+ Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)






Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1994)
Orthonevra shusteri Bradescu, 1993 not described.

Orthonevra stackelbergi Thompson & Torp, 1982 not described.


Palumbia bellieri (Bigot), 1860 not described.

Palumbia eristaloides (Portschinsky), 1887 not described.


Paragus abrogans Goeldlin, 1971 not described.

Paragus absidatus Goeldlin, 1971 both larva and puparium are described – the larva is also figured - by Rotheray and Sarthou (2007), from larvae found on Gentiana punctata in subalpine grassland. This species has also been reared from larvae found on Epilobium and Cirsium in subalpine grassland (P.Goeldlin, pers.comm.).

Rotheray & Sarthou (2007)

Rotheray & Sarthou (2007)


Rotheray & Sarthou (2007)

Paragus albifrons (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974) from larvae collected on Cirsium arvense; also found on Carduus and Onopordon by Marcos-Garcia (1981, 1985). Torp (1994) mentions Ononis repens as another plant on which P.albifrons larvae have been found. In the list provided by Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1998) Daucus and Tragopogon are also given.


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974
Paragus albipes Gimmerthal, 1842 not described.

Paragus altomontanus Van de Weyer, 2010 not described.

Paragus ascoensis Goeldlin, 1981

not described.



Paragus atlasi Claussen, 1989

not described.



Paragus azureus Hull, 1949 not described.

Paragus bicolor (Fabricius), 1794 larva not described, but apparently reared from among aphids on Rumex (Gomes, 1981). + Heiss, 1938 + Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Heiss, 1938


Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Heiss, 1938

 

Paragus bradescui Stanescu, 1981

not described.

Paragus cinctus Schiner & Egger, 1853

not described.



Paragus coadunatus Rondani, 1847 not described.

Paragus compeditus Wiedemann, 1830
not described.

Paragus constrictus Simic, 1986

undescribed, but has been found on Hypochoeris radicata (Bartsch et al, 2009). 


Paragus faesi Van de Weyer, 2000 not described.

Paragus finitimus Goeldlin, 1971

not described.



Paragus flammeus Goeldlin, 1971

not described.



Paragus glumaci Vujic, Simic & Radenkovic, 1999 not described.

Paragus haemorrhous Meigen, 1822 larva aphid feeding on Rubus and various herbaceous plants, e.g. Calendula, Digitalis and Sonchus (Dussaix, 2013) plus some crops (at least in southern Europe), such as Beta, Cynara and Vicia species (Rojo and Marcos-Garcia, 1998); described and figured by Goeldlin (1974), from a larva collected on Knautia. The larva is of this species is also illustrated in colour (from a preserved specimen) by Rotheray (1994) and (from living material) by Bartsch et al (2009a) and Dussaix (2013). The larva described by Dixon (1960) as that of P.tibialis (Fall.) is the larva of P.haemorrhous. The puparium is shown in colour by Dussaix (2013), who also reports that duration of the puparial phase is 10 days. Mizuno et al (1997) present data showing that P. haemorrhous larvae specialise in predation of aphids that are protected by ants (Lasius niger), which deter more generalist aphidophagous syrphid larvae.


Dussaix, 2013

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Dussaix (site web)

Paragus hermonensis Kaplan, 1981

Dusek & Laska (1960a)



Paragus hyalopteri Marcos-Garcia & Rojo, 1994
larval biology indicated by Marcos-Garcia and Rojo (1994) and Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1998); feeds on aphids on fruit trees of the genus Prunus and on Arundo and Phragmites. 
Paragus kopdagensis Hayat & Claussen, 1997 not described.

Paragus majoranae Rondani, 1857

not described.



Paragus medeae Stanescu, 1991 not described.

Paragus oltenicus Stanescu, 1977

not described.



Paragus pecchiolii Rondani, 1857
="P. majoranae"
larva described and figured (under the name P.majoranae) by Goeldlin (1974), who found larvae on legumes, Hedera and Prunus. Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1998) record the rearing this species (as P.majoranae) from larvae collected among aphids on various crops (Beta, Cynara, Vicia, Zea mays) and on Carduus, Lavatera and Rumex. Dussaix (2013) records rearing the species from larvae found on Viola and Symphytum and provides coloured photos of both larva and puparium. Duration of the puparial phase is 8 days (Dussaix (2013).

Dussaix, 2013


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

 


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

 



Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dussaix, 2013

Paragus punctulatus Zetterstedt, 1838

not described, but quite possibly associated with dwarf shrubs, to judge from the habits of the adult flies.


Paragus quadrifasciatus Meigen, 1822 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974); recorded from among aphids on various, mostly low-growing, plants: Centaurea, Cichorium, Leontodon autumnalis, Onopordon, but also from Rubus and Sonchus. According to Marcos-Garcia (1983), development from the time an egg is laid to hatching of the puparium takes only 4 weeks in this species. Dussaix (2013) records duration of the puparial phase as between 8 and 20 days, the shorter puparial phase being exhibited by puparia from summer larvae. Dussaix (2005b) observed that the larva can overwinter.


























Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974



Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dussaix, 2013

Paragus romanicus Stanescu, 1992

not described.



Paragus sexarcuatus Bigot, 1862

not described.

Paragus strigatus Meigen, 1822

not described.



Paragus tibialis (Fallen), 1817 larva not described, but information on the biology of the aphid-feeding larva is provided by Marcos-Garcia (1981), who reared the species from eggs and larvae collected from Carduus and Onorpodon. Torp (1984) also reports finding larvae on Hypochoeris. Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1998) report rearing the species from larvae collected among aphids on crops of Foeniculum vulgare, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Medicago sativa. A list of plants on which S. rueppellii larvae have been found in the wild is furnished by Rojo et al (2003). The list includes various tall composites and umbellifers, plus some shrubs (Cistus, Prunus spinosa). Generation time in southern Europe is only 3 weeks (Marcos-Garcia, 1981). + Dixon, 1960 + Heiss, 1938

Heiss, 1938


Dixon, 1960

Heiss, 1938


Heiss, 1938

Paragus vandergooti Marcos-Garcia, 1986

not described.




Parasyrphus annulatus (Zetterstedt), 1838 larva not described, but reported by Bartsch et al (2009a) as found feeding on aphids on Abies spp. Curiously, Kula (1982) records larvae of P.annulatus as hibernating in the leaf litter of spruce (Picea) forest, though he reports no records of the larvae of this species among syrphid larvae collected from spruce foliage, which he investigated in another part of this same study. Bastian (1986) also records larvae from Picea.
Parasyrphus groenlandicus (Nielsen), 1910 not described.

Parasyrphus kirgizorum (Peck), 1969 not described.

Parasyrphus lineolus (Zetterstedt), 1843

larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974); aphid feeding; Kula (1982) has established that the larvae of this species occur in the crowns of spruce (Picea) and that a proportion overwinter on the forest floor, among leaf litter. 


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Parasyrphus macularis (Zetterstedt), 1843

not described.



Parasyrphus malinellus (Collin), 1952

not described.



Parasyrphus nigritarsis (Zetterstedt), 1843
larva described and figured by Schneider (1953) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); predatory on the larvae of chrysomelid beetles on trees and shrubs. The species has also been reared from larvae collected with Gastrophysa viridula on Rumex, in farmland (Rotheray and Hewitt, 1999). But it is a moot point whether P.nigritarsis larvae in such a location would under normal conditions ever complete their development – the farming practice of topping grassland to prevent seeding of aggressive weeds like Rumex would be expected to convert a Rumex stand into a population sink for syrphids like P.nigritarsis. Distinguished from larvae of related genera and some other (unspecified) Parasyrphus species in the keys provided by Rotheray (1994).

Rotheray (1994)

© Leif Bloss Carstensen


Rotheray & Gilbert (2011)


Diapaused Larva

Foster R. (2020)



Schneider (1953)



Foster R. (2020)

Parasyrphus proximus Mutin, 1990 not described.

Parasyrphus punctulatus (Verrall), 1873 larva described, with its posterior spiracular processes illustrated, by Rotheray (1987), who collected larvae in December, from leaf litter beneath Acer pseudoplatanus. The larvae overwintered and produced adults in May of the following year. Rotheray (1987) also records finding larvae on Rosa sp. The larva is illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). Chandler (1968) describes the egg. According to Barkemeyer (1994), this species overwinters as a puparium.

 

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)


Rotheray (1987)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)

Parasyrphus relictus (Zetterstedt), 1836 not described.

Parasyrphus tarsatus (Zetterstedt), 1838

not described.



Parasyrphus vittiger (Zetterstedt), 1843 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); aphid feeding; Kula (1982) records larvae of this species as found hibernating in leaf litter in spruce (Picea) forest. Larvae have been found on Abies, Fagus, Picea and Pinus.

Rotheray (1994)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Parhelophilus consimilis (Malm), 1863

not described.



Parhelophilus crococoronatus Reemer, 2000

not described.



Parhelophilus frutetorum (Fabricius), 1775 the larva and puparium are described and figured by Hartley (1961), from material collected from organic mud in a woodland pond.


Hartley (1961) and Dolezil (1972)

Hartley (1961)
Parhelophilus sibiricus (Stackelberg), 1924 not described.

Parhelophilus versicolor (Fabricius), 1794 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), from larvae collected from decaying rhizomes of Typha, in a pond; aquatic.


Dolezil (1972)


Hartley (1961)

Hartley (1961)


Pelecocera caledonica (Collin), 1940

not described, but apparently phytophagous.

+ Ståhls G (2024)







Ståhls G (2024)

Pelecocera lugubris Perris, 1839

(Pelecocera lusitanica (Mik), 1898)


not described, but apparently phytophagous.


Like P. lugubris
Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024







Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024

Pré-Pupe





Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024


Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024
Pelecocera nigricornis (Santos Abreu), 1924
not described. 

Pelecocera pruinosomaculata Strobl, 1906

not described. 



Pelecocera scaevoides (Fallen), 1817


not described, but apparently phytophagous.



Pelecocera tricincta Meigen, 1822

not described. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).


Ståhls G (2024);  Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024









Second stage larva (L2)
Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024


Second stage larva (L2)
Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024

Ståhls G (2024)

Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024


Orengo-Green, J.J.; Marcos-García, M.Á; Carstensen, L.B.; Ricarte, A. 2024

Pipiza accola Violovitsh, 1985

not described. In Fennoscandia this species seems to be closely associated with Prunus padus. 


Pipiza austriaca Meigen, 1822 larva and puparium figured in colour by Dussaix (2013); larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974), from larvae collected on yellow gentian. Dussaix (2013) found the larvae of this species on Rumex, and observes that, at maturation, they go into a diapause for some weeks, before puparial formation. He records duration of the puparial phase as 8-9 days.

Dussaix, 2013


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Dussaix, 2013

Pipiza carbonaria Meigen, 1822 not described.

Pipiza fasciata Meigen, 1822

not described. 



Pipiza festiva Meigen, 1822 larva described and figured by Dusek and Laska (1959), from larvae found feeding on gall-making aphids of the genus Pemphigus, on Populus; also found with gall-making aphids on Populus by Dussaix (2013). The larval biology is described by Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1997), who found larvae on Populus, fruit trees (Prunus spp., Pyrus) and shrubs (Pistachio spp.). From oviposition to emergence of adults, development takes approximately 1.5 months, but may be interrupted by larval diapause. Overwintering also occurs in larval diapause. Dussaix (2013) records duration of the puparial phase as 2-3 weeks.

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1959) and Dusek & Laska (1960a)

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dussaix, 2013

Pipiza laurusi Vujić & Ståhls, in Vujić et al, 2013 not described. 

Pipiza lugubris Fabricius, 1775

not described. 



Pipiza luteibarba Vujić, Radenković & Polić, 2008 not described. 

Pipiza luteitarsis Zetterstedt, 1843 larva described, with various features figured, by Rotheray (1987), who found larvae on a number of occasions in June, in colonies of the leaf-curl aphid Schizoneura ulmi (L.), in leaf-curl galls on Ulmus glabra. Rotheray (2014) again records finding P. luteitarsis larvae with the same leaf-curl aphid on Ulmus glabra in 2010, remarking that the larva of this species “appears to develop exclusively on the aphid Schizoneura ulmi, on its primary host, the foliage of elms, Ulmus species”. Rotheray (1987) observed that the larvae went into diapause in July, overwintered as larvae, pupated in the following April and May and hatched as adults in May-June. The larva is illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994).

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1987)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)

Pipiza noctiluca L, 1758 larva aphid-feeding on tall herbs, bushes and shrubs up to 3m from the ground. Dussaix (2013) notes that, in what is probably this species, the mature larva undergoes a diapause of some weeks before formation of the puparium, and that duration of the puparial phase is approximately 2 weeks.

Dussaix, 2013



Pipiza notata Meigen, 1822 =P. bimaculata undescribed, but Dussaix (2005b) reports rearing what may be this species from larvae collected on Prunus avium, with a leaf-rolling aphid.

+ Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dussaix, 2013

Pipiza quadrimaculata (Panzer), 1804

not described, but Kula (1982) records larvae as overwintering among leaf litter on the floor of spruce (Picea) forest. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 




Pipizella annulata (Macquart), 1829 undescribed, but larva found by Dussaix (1997a) among the roots of Heracleum, with aphids tended by ants. Dussaix (2013) provides more detail on the rearing of this species and coloured photos of both larva and puparium. He notes that all the larvae he found were on leaves of, or at the stem-base of , Heracleum plants, where both aphids and ants (genus not specified) were present. Puparial formation occurred at the stem-base. Larvae reaching maturity in the autumn remained at the stem-base, in diapause, throughout the winter. Dussaix (2013) records duration of the puparial phase as 12 days.

Dussaix, 2013



Dussaix, 2013
Pipizella antennata Violovitsh, 1981 not described. 

Pipizella bayburtica Claussen & Hayat, 1997 not described. 

Pipizella beckeri Bradescu, 1986 not described. 

Pipizella bispina Simic, 1987

not described. 



Pipizella brevis Lucas, 1977

not described. 



Pipizella calabra (Goeldlin), 1974

not described. 



Pipizella cantabrica Claussen, 1991 not described. 

Pipizella caucasica Skufjin, 1976 not described. 

Pipizella certa Violovitsch, 1981 not described. 

Pipizella curvitibia Stackelberg, 1960 not described. 

Pipizella divicoi (Goeldlin), 1974

not described. 



Pipizella elegantissima Lucas, 1976

not described. 



Pipizella kuznetzovi Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011 not described. 

Pipizella lyneborgi Torp Pedersen, 1971 not described. 

Pipizella maculipennis (Meigen), 1822

not described. 



Pipizella mongolorum Stackelberg, 1952

not described. 



Pipizella nataliae Kuznetzov, 1990 not described. 

Pipizella nigriana (Séguy), 1961

not described. 



Pipizella obscura Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011 not described. 

Pipizella obscura Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011 not described. 

Pipizella ochreobasalis Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011 not described. 

Pipizella orientalis Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011 not described. 

Pipizella pennina (Goeldlin), 1974

not described. 



Pipizella sacculata Becker, 1921 not described. 

Pipizella siciliana Nielsen & Torp, 1973

not described. 



Pipizella speighti Verlinden, 1999

not described. 



Pipizella thapsiana Kassebeer, 1995 not described. 

Pipizella vandergooti Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011 not described. 

Pipizella viduata (L.), 1758
= P. varipes
the larva is aphid-feeding, on root aphids of low-growing plants (e.g. umbellifers) and was probably that described by Dixon (1960) under the name P.varipes. The larva may be a quasi-commensal of ants, which tend root aphids. Egg: Chandler (1968).
+ Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Dixon, 1960

Dixon, 1960

                 Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

 

Pipizella virens (Fabricius), 1805

larva not described, but believed to be a predator of root aphids on umbellifers. 


Pipizella zeneggenensis (Goeldlin), 1974

not described. 



Pipizella zloti Vujic, 1997 not described. 


Platycheirus abruzzensis (van der Goot), 1969

not described. 



Platycheirus aeratus Coquillet, 1900 not described. 

Platycheirus albimanus (Fabricius), 1781 larva described and figured by Dixon (1960); aphid feeding, on various low-growing plants and bushes. Larvae have also been found on trees, such as Abies and Malus. Larvae were found by Maibach (1993) on Phragmites, where they rested aligned with the long axis of the stem. Egg: Chandler (1968).


Dixon, 1960


Platycheirus altomontis Merlin & Nielsen, in Nielsen, 2004 not described. 

Platycheirus ambiguus (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Dusek and Laska (1959) and Goeldlin (1974), aphidophagous on trees and shrubs, e.g. Malus, Prunus, Ribes; may be abundant on Prunus spinosa in hedges (Pollard et al, 1974).

 

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dusek & Laska (1959)

Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)


Dusek & Laska (1959)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Platycheirus amplus Curran, 1927

not described. 



Platycheirus angustatus (Zetterstedt), 1843

larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a), from herb layer plants. Chambers et al (1986) refer to having collected larvae of this species from crops of winter wheat.




Rotheray (1988)

Platycheirus angustipes Goeldlin, 1974 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974), from larvae collected from emergent Carex and Phragmites around the edge of a small lake (P.Goeldlin, pers.comm.)


 

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

 


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Platycheirus aurolateralis Stubbs, 2002

not described. Doczkal et al (2002) refer to a puparium, noting that it "has no conspicuous dark markings dorsally as is described for P. splendidus". 


Platycheirus brunnifrons Nielsen, 2004

  not described. 



Platycheirus caesius Nielsen & Stuke, in Nielsen, 2004 not described.  

Platycheirus chilosia (Curran), 1922 not described.  

Platycheirus ciliatus Bigot, 1884

not described. 



Platycheirus cintoensis van der Goot, 1961

not described. 



Platycheirus clausseni Nielsen, 2004

not described. 



Platycheirus clypeatus (Meigen), 1822 larva supposedly described and figured by Dixon (1960). Dziock (2002) reported that under laboratory conditions development (from egg-laying to hatching of adult) can take as little as 5-6 weeks in this species. Maibach (1993) found larvae of this species on foliage of Carex and Typha. Egg: Chandler (1968).


 

Dixon, 1960


Platycheirus complicatus (Becker), 1889

not described. 



Platycheirus discimanus (Loew), 1871

not described. 



Platycheirus europaeus Goeldlin, Maibach & Speight, 1990

not described. 



Platycheirus fasciculatus Loew, 1856

not described. 



Platycheirus fimbriatus (Loew, 1871) not described. 

Platycheirus fulviventris (Macquart), 1829 larva described and figured by Rotheray and Dobson (1987) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); coloured photo of the puparium in Dussaix (2013). Larva aphid-feeding, on Carex, Phragmites and Typha. Dziock (2002) reported that under laboratory conditions development (from egg-laying to hatching of adult) can take as little as 7 weeks in this species. Dussaix recordes duration of the puparial phase as 1 week.

 

Rotheray (1994)

Rotheray & Dobson (1987)

 

Rotheray & Dobson (1987)


Dussaix, 2013

Platycheirus goeldlini Nielsen, 2004

not described. 



Platycheirus groenlandicus Curran, 1927 not described. 

Platycheirus hyperboreus (Staeger), 1845

according to Vockeroth (1992), the larvae of this species have been recorded as important predator of alfalfa and pea aphids in N America - this seems sufficiently unlikely to suggest that the N American and European material referred to this species may include more than one taxon. 

Platycheirus immaculatus Ohara, 1980

not described. 



Platycheirus immarginatus (Zetterstedt), 1849 not described. + Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974



Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Platycheirus islandicus Ringdahl, 1930 not described. 

Platycheirus jaerensis Nielsen, 1971

larva not described, but Nielsen (pers.comm.) has observed the female ovipositing on the underside of leaves of Vaccinium uliginosus and has been able to rear the larvae through early instars using aphids as food. 

Platycheirus kittilaensis Dusek & Láska, 1982 not described. 

Platycheirus laskai Nielsen, 1999 not described. 

Platycheirus latimanus (Wahlberg), 1845 not described. 

Platycheirus lundbecki (Collin), 1931 not described. 

Platycheirus magadanensis Mutin, 1999 not described. 

Platycheirus manicatus (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974); aphid feeding, on low-growing plants and bushes.


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

 

Dixon, 1960

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Platycheirus marokkanus Kassebeer, 1998 not described. 

Platycheirus melanopsis Loew, 1856 larva found by Goeldlin (pers.comm.) among aphid colonies on Cirsium in alpine grassland; larva and puparium described and figured by Rotheray (1997), from specimens found on Vaccinium and Blechnum.


Rotheray (1997)

Rotheray (1997)

Rotheray (1997)
Platycheirus meridimontanus Nielsen, 2004 not described. 

Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926 not described. 

Platycheirus muelleri Marcuzzi, 1941

not described. 



Platycheirus naso (Walker) 1849 not described. 

Platycheirus nielseni Vockeroth, 1990

not described. 

Platycheirus nigrofemoratus Kanervo, 1934 not described. 

Platycheirus occultus Goeldlin, Maibach & Speight, 1990

not described. 



Platycheirus parmatus Rondani, 1857
=P. ovalis
larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974).


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974
Platycheirus peltatus (Meigen), 1822 available larval descriptions are unreliable, due to doubt about identity of the species involved. The larva is supposedly illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994).

+ Dusek & Laska (1960b) + Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1960b)









Dusek & Laska (1960b)



Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)
Platycheirus perpallidus Verrall, 1901 larva aphidophagous; described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1991a); occurs on water's edge plants such as Typha and Carex rostrata; overwinters on the lower parts of its plant host under water and may even be found beneath ice (A.Maibach, pers. comm.) when the surface water freezes.

 


Maibach & Goeldlin (1991a)

 


Maibach & Goeldlin (1991a)


Heiss, 1938





Maibach & Goeldlin (1991a)
Platycheirus podagratus (Zetterstedt), 1838 larva not described, but illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994).


 

Rotheray (1994)



Platycheirus ramsarensis Goeldlin, Maibach & Speight, 1990 not described. 

Platycheirus scambus (Staeger), 1843

larva described and figured by Rotheray (1988a).






Rotheray (1988a)

Platycheirus scutatus (Meigen), 1822 the larva was supposedly described and figured by Bhatia (1939), who also describes the egg; the larva is also supposedly illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). Subsequent description of three more European species in the scutatus group renders these larval descriptions insecure. Similarly, the larval biology described by Dusek & Laska (1974) may not refer to P. scutatus, but to some other scutatus group species. Nonetheless, it seems sure that the larva is aphid feeding, on herbaceous plants, bushes, shrubs and small trees. Dussaix (2013), who reared the species from larvae found on Rumex, records a prolonged aestival diapause, of nearly three months, in larvae of this species which matured in June, followed by a puparial phase of 1 week. Dussaix (2013) provides a coloured photo of the puparium.

 

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1960b)


Reemer et al (2009)


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Bhatia (1939)


Scott  (1939)

Dussaix, 2013

Platycheirus speighti Doczkal, Stuke & Goeldlin, 2002

not described. 



Platycheirus splendidus Rotheray, 1998 the larva and puparium are described and figured by Rotheray (1998), from leaf-curl galls of the aphid Schizoneura ulmi (L.) on Ulmus glabra, and from aphid colonies on Silene dioica.







Rotheray (1998)

Platycheirus sticticus (Meigen), 1822

not described. 



Platycheirus subambiguus Nielsen, 2004

not described. 



Platycheirus subordinatus Becker, 1915 not described.  

Platycheirus tarsalis (Schummel), 1836

not described. 



Platycheirus tatricus Dusek & Laska, 1982

not described. 



Platycheirus transfugus (Zetterstedt), 1838

not described. 



Platycheirus urakawensis (Matsumura), 1919
not described, but apparently associated with aphids of herbaceous plants (Vockeroth, 1990). 

Platycheirus varipes Curran, 1923 not described. 


Platynochaetus rufus Macquart, 1835 not described. 

Platynochaetus setosus (Fabricius), 1794

not described.




Pocota personata (Harris), 1780 larva described and figured by Rotheray (1991), from larvae collected from rot-holes in live Fagus. This species has also been reared from larvae collected in a standing-water rot-hole in Populus, by Becher (1882), and from a rot-hole in Populus tremula (Ahnlund, pers.comm.). Alexander (2005) concludes that there may be some dependence of the larvae of this species upon white-rot-fungi, suggesting that the presence of such fungi in a rot-hole may be of more significance to Pocota than whether or no the rot-hole contains standing water. He also substantiates suggestions that this species uses trunk rot-holes 1m or more above the ground. Larvae of P.personata may be distinguished from larvae of related genera by the keys in Rotheray (1994), who also provides a coloured illustration of the larva, apparently from a preserved specimen. P. personata overwinters as a larva.

 

Rotheray (1994)


Dusek & Laska (1961)


Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Dixon, 1960

Rotheray (1991)



Portevinia maculata (Fallen), 1817 larva described and figured by Speight (1986b) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). The larva is phytophagous, mining firstly the stem-base and later the corms of Allium ursinum (or A. triquetrum). It passes the winter as a larva and becomes a puparium in early spring. The puparial phase lasts approximately three weeks. In the literature P. maculata is frequently referred to, erroneously, as mining the leaves of A. ursinum. In alpine grassland, P. maculata presumably uses a different Allium species as foodplant, as is the case in Cheilosia fasciata (see species account for that species), though which Allium is involved (probably A. victorialis: U.Schmid, pers.comm.) does not seem to have been established for P. maculata. The larva may be distinguished from the larvae of related genera by the keys incorporated into Rotheray (1994).

 


Rotheray (1994)


Speight, 1986b

Speight, 1986b

Rotheray (1991)


Stuke, 2000

Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)

Stuke, 2000

Speight, 1986b

Primocerioides regale Violovitsch, 1985 not described. 


Psarus abdominalis (Fabricius), 1794

not described. 




Pseudodoros nigricollis Becker, 1903
not described, but reared from larvae feeding on the aphid Hyalopterus pruni on an unidentified species of reed (Van Eck and Makris, 2016), probably either Arundo or Phragmites. That aphid has alternate generations on reeds and various fruit trees and it seems likely Pseudodoros alternates habitats similarly. 

Pseudopelecocera latifrons (Loew), 1856
not described. 


Psilota anthracina Meigen, 1822 Kassebeer et al (1998) describe and figure the larva and puparium supposedly of this species, but based on material from both Picea and Pinus, suggesting that both P.anthracina and P.atra may have been involved. The larvae they mention from accumulations of decaying sap under Picea bark are presumably those of P.anthracina as interpreted here. The female of P.anthracina has been seen investigating the damaged trunk-base of a living Picea.

Kassebeer et al. (1998)

 

Kassebeer et al. (1998)




Kassebeer et al. (1998)

Psilota atra (Loew), 1817

it seems likely that the description of larvae and puparium of P.anthracina provided by Kassebeer et al (1998) is composite, involving material of both P.anthracina and P.atra. But the larvae they mention from an internal pocket of decay, containing rotten wood, sap and water, in the trunk of a living Pinus split by storm damage, probably belonged to P.atra. The female of probably this species has been observed ovipositing in the exit hole of a Cerambyx cerdo burrow, in an ancient, living Quercus in parkland (Doczkal, pers.comm.). 

Psilota exilistyla Smit & Vujic, 2008

not described. 



Psilota innupta Rondani, 1857 not described.
Psilota nana Smit & Vujić, 2008 not described; females have been observed flying up and down the trunk of a large Quercus frainetto, inhabited by the trunk cavity ant Liometopum microcephalum, and attempting oviposition on the bark.

Pyrophaena granditarsis (Forster), 1771

larva undescribed, but this species has been collected in numbers from emergence traps installed over the taller patches of grass that develop around cow pats, in a cattle-grazed, humid grassland and from emergence traps installed over setaside vegetation. Barkemeyer's (1994) reference to occurrence of larvae of this species in cereal crops seems to be in error, since the source he quotes (Chambers et al, 1986) makes no mention whatever of Platycheirus granditarsus. 

Pyrophaena rosarum (Fabricius), 1787

not described. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). 




Rhingia borealis Ringdahl, 1928

not described.



Rhingia campestris Meigen, 1822
the subaquatic larva was described and figured by Coe (1942), from larvae reared from moist cow-dung. It is illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). The species is today closely associated with cattle over most of its European range, but can occur where cows are absent, e.g. alluvial forest, and the larvae can be presumed to develop also in rich, moist accumulations of rotting foliage other than cow dung.

 

Rotheray (1994)


Coe (1942) and Coe (1953)

Rotheray & Gilbert  (1999) // Hennig, 1952


Coe (1942) and Coe (1953) and Dixon, 1960 // Coe (1942)


Hartley (1963)


Stuke, 2000

Coe (1953)


Coe (1942)


Rotheray & Rotheray (2021)
Rhingia rostrata (L.), 1758 according to Grunin (1939) the eggs of R.rostrata are laid on the underside of the leaves of trees such as Fagus, where there is dung of large mammals on the ground below, the female fly first locating dung in an appropriate condition and then flying up to lay eggs on leaves suspended over the dung. He also notes that eggs can be very frequent on grasses in the immediate vicinity of dung. He observed that females never lay their eggs in dung itself. He says that the larvae hatching from eggs laid on the leaves of trees drop onto the dung, at a stage when the dung is already dry and most of the activity of dung-inhabiting organisms has already ceased. He postulates that R.rostrata larvae require dung “empty” of other dung-using organisms. He suggests that under natural conditions the dung of large ungulates is used and reports once finding larvae in horse dung (noting that horses were then frequent in the forests of the Caucasus), but says that the larvae can be reared on human dung. Evidently the eggs take 5-6 days to hatch, the larvae take approximately two weeks to become fully-grown and they then pupate on the ground. Confusingly, Grunin’s (1939) detailed account of the life history of R.rostrata does not accord with the known habitats of R.rostrata, that are essentially humid forest, normally on a heavy, clay soil. R.rostrata is not a species characteristic of dry forest grazed by livestock and, indeed, is most repeatedly found in forests where ungulate numbers are low – typically confined to wild pig (Sus scrofa) and/or roe deer (Capreolus). Grunin’s (1939) reference to once finding R. rostrata larvae in horse dung bears some consideration. In western Europe, R. rostrata seems to have been more frequent previously than now. its disappearance more-or-less co-inciding with the period of replacement of horses by mechanised vehicles. Given that R. rostrata is a forest insect, it is more than possible that cessation of the use of horses and mules to drag out, or carry out (in the case of firewood) timber from forests caused a considerable decrease in R. rostrata numbers. It would be very helpful if the life history of this species could be re-investigated, somewhere where it is still frequent, for example in forests of the foothills of the Pyrenees, to establish whether Grunin’s (1939) observations can be repeated, or whether a rather different picture of R.rostrata’s development emerges. + Rotheray & Rotheray (2021)


Grunin (1939)



Rotheray & Rotheray (2021)

Riponnensia daccordii (Claussen), 1991

not described. 



Riponnensia insignis (Loew), 1843
not described. 

Riponnensia longicornis (Loew), 1843

not described. 



Riponnensia morini Vujic, 1999 not described.

Riponnensia splendens (Meigen), 1822 larva described and figured by Maibach and Goeldlin (1994) and Hartley (1961). Hartley's (l.c.) larvae were found in pond mud containing lots of pieces of twig and wood; larvae occur in very shallow, slow-moving water with woody debris, including seepages and ditches.


Hartley (1961)


Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Maibach & Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1994

Hartley (1961)


Rohdendorfia alpina Sack, 1938 larva not described, but incorporated into the keys provided by Rotheray (1994), where it is distinguished from larvae of related genera, based on material collected by Claussen from undersides of morainic rocks (C.Claussen, pers.comm.), where, it seems, the puparia are formed. Claussen (pers.comm.) has also observed oviposition in this species. The female searches for a flat stone that has been grown around by a cushion plant, e.g. Cerastium, and then oviposits on the underside of such stones, often disappearing under the stone to do so. 

Scaeva albomaculata (Macquart), 1842 puparium described by Kuznetzov and Daminova (1994). Diagnostic features of the last instar larva and puparium are given by Laska et al (2006), who also provide a key separating both larvae and puparia of this species from those of the other Scaeva species known from Europe. Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1998) found the larva among aphids on various herbaceous plants (Anacyclus, Andryala, Hirschfeldia, Ligusticum, Onopordon) including crop species of Beta and Vicia. According to Nourbakhsh et al (2008) the larva forms its puparium in the soil, at a depth of 3-5cm.



Kuznetzov & Daminova (1994)

Kuznetzov & Daminova (1994)

Laska et al (2006)


Kuznetzov & Daminova (1994)

Scaeva dignota (Rondani, 1857) described and figured by Laska et al (2006), who report the larva occurring in the field on fruit trees (Prunus domestica) and other understory trees (Prunus communis) and shrubs (Sambucus nigra) and also on bean crops (Vicia fabae). Diagnostic features of the last instar larva and puparium are also given by Laska et al (2006), who provide a key separating both larvae and puparia of this species from those of the other Scaeva species known from Europe. However, Laska et al (2006) state that, in respect of S.dignota and S.selenitica, "except for size differences of microtrichia of the posterior fold, we have been unable to find informative characters to distinguish larvae or pupae of these species".







Laska et al (2006)

Scaeva mecogramma (Bigot), 1860 diagnostic features of the last instar larva and puparium are given by Laska et al (2006), who also provide a key separating both larvae and puparia of this species from those of the other Scaeva species known from Europe. The larval biology is detailed by Rojo et al (1999), who observed that the larvae are predators of the psyllid Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Aphalaridae: Homoptera) on olive trees (Olea). Psyllid numbers peak in spring and autumn and S.mecogramma larvae are present within the psyllid colonies during both periods. The larvae become totally covered in the waxy secretions of the psyllids. Larval development is very rapid, taking only 2 weeks and the adult fly emerges after a further two weeks in the puparium. Females of S. mecogramma have been observed searching among the foliage of Phillyrea latifolia (a Mediterranean understorey tree also of the same plant family as the olive), though oviposition was not confirmed. The psyllid E. olivina also lives on Phillyrea latifolia and S. mecogramma larvae may do likewise. Indeed, there are three Euphyllura psyllids on olive trees, E. olivina, E. phillyreae Foerster and E. straminea Loginova. As its name suggests, one of the hosts of E. phillyreae is also Phillyrea. Given the heavy, repeated, insecticidal treatments to which commercial olive orchards are subjected, in attempts to prevent infestation of olives by the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)), it is perhaps unsurprising that Sceava mecogramma is not today an abundant insect in olive-growing regions. It may depend more on organic olive orchards and Phillyrea scrub for its survival.




Laska et al (2006)

Scaeva pyrastri (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by various authors, e.g. Bhatia (1939), who also describes the egg. Diagnostic features of the last instar larva and puparium are given by Laska et al (2006), who also provide a key separating both larvae and puparia of this species from those of the other Scaeva species known from Europe. The larva is aphid feeding on a wide range of aphids on low-growing plants, bushes and shrubs, including many crops. Rojo and Marcos-Garcia (1998) list herbaceous plant genera on which larvae of this species have been found in Portugal and/or Spain. Rotheray (1994) and Dussaix (2013) illustrate the larva in colour. Overwintering in this species apparently occurs as a puparium (Kantyerina, 1979) in the grass-root zone or on trees. In non-overwintering puparia, Dussaix (2013) reports that duration of the puparial phase is 10 days and shows the puparium in colour. Barkemeyer (1994) provides a comprehensive literature review of what is known of the biology of this species. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

Dussaix (site web)

Bhatia (1939)


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Brauns, 1953

Dusek & Laska (1959)

Heiss, 1938 // Dixon, 1960 // Kuznetzov & Daminova (1994)





Scott  (1939)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974




Heiss, 1938

Scott  (1939)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Laska et al (2006)


Dussaix, 2013
Scaeva selenitica (Meigen), 1822 the existing descriptions of the larva of this species all predate reinstatement of the closely similar S.dignota as a distinct (and widely distributed) European species, and could thus be based on either S.dignota or S.selenitica. But the description provided by Dixon (1960) has the virtue that it is based on material from part of Europe (Britain) where S.dignota does not seem to occur and can thus be presumed to refer to S.selenitica. Even though diagnostic features of the last instar larva and puparium of this species have more recently been given and figured by Laska et al (2006), who also provide a key separating both its larvae and puparia from those of the other Scaeva species known from Europe, it is apparent that the developmental stages of S.dignota and S.selenitica remain virtually indistinguishable (see under S.dignota). Speight et al (1986) also figure features of the puparium. The larva is aphid feeding, on shrubs and trees; Kula (1982) reports larvae of this species as overwintering among leaf litter of the floor of spruce (Picea) forest.

Laska et al (2006)


Brauns, 1953

 

Dusek & Laska (1959)



Dixon, 1960 and Kuznetzov & Daminova (1994)

Scott  (1939)




Rotheray & Gilbert (1989)

 









Laska et al (2006)



Scott  (1939)

Sericomyia arctica Schirmer, 1913.
undescribed, but probably associated with small pools. 

Sericomyia bequaerti (Hervé-Bazin), 1913
not described. 

Sericomyia bombiforme (Fallen), 1810

undescribed. A female has been observed egg-laying in moss at the margin of a forest stream (Van Steenis et al, 2013). 


Sericomyia hispanica Peris Torres, 1962

not described.



Sericomyia jakutica (Stackelberg), 1927 not described.

Sericomyia lappona (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961) and illustrated in colour (from a preserved specimen) by Rotheray (1994); aquatic.

Rotheray (1994)


Hartley (1961)

Hartley (1961)


Hartley (1963)

Hartley (1961)

Sericomyia nigra Portschinsky, 1873 not described.

Sericomyia silentis (Harris), 1776

larva not described, but has been found in old, wet bark and wood fragments and saw-dust on an old forest sawmill site and from humus-rich mud in an acid fen flush. Also found by Bloomfield (1897) in the bottom of a water-filled ditch draining an exploited peat bog. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988).

Sericomyia superbiens (Muller), 1776

larva undescribed, but almost certainly aquatic/subaquatic among organic debris in semi-liquid mud close to streams and springs. Stubbs and Falk (1983) report that "A female was seen ovipositing in deep, water-filled hoof prints along a shaded muddy path by a stream". 

Sericomyia tolli (Frey), 1915 features of the larva and puparium are illustrated and described by Kuznetzov and Kuznetzova (1995), from material collected from a peat bog hummock.








Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1995)


Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1995)


Kuznetzov & Kuznetzova (1995)
Sericomyia volucellinus Portschinsky, 1881 not described.


Spazigaster ambulans (Fabricius), 1798

undescribed. The marked association between this insect and thickets of low, water-side shrubs is a strong indication that Spazigaster larvae inhabit these thickets. It is to be expected that they predate plant bugs, or similar insects, living somewhere in these thickets. However, the larvae could be located mostly on twigs or other woody parts rather than on the foliage and may well have some particular relationship which results in the observed restriction of S.ambulans to higher altitudes/colder locations, within its geographic range.


Sphaerophoria abbreviata Zetterstedt, 1859 not described.

Sphaerophoria bankowskae Goeldlin, 1989

not described.



Sphaerophoria batava Goeldlin, 1974

not described.



Sphaerophoria bengalensis Macquart, 1842 not described.

Sphaerophoria boreoalpina Goeldlin, 1989

not described.



Sphaerophoria chongjini Bankowska, 1964

not described.



Sphaerophoria estebani Goeldlin, 1991

not described.



Sphaerophoria fatarum Goeldlin, 1989 not described. 

Sphaerophoria infuscata Goeldlin, 1974

not described.



Sphaerophoria interrupta (Fabricius), 1805
= S. menthastri
larva described and its posterior respiratory processes figured, by Rotheray (1987), who found larvae on Hieracium pilosella in June and on Silene dioica in May. The larva is illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). According to Stubbs (1996) larvae have also been found with aphids on the ruderal Cerastium fontanum.

Rotheray (1994)


Rotheray (1987)


Sphaerophoria kaa Violovitsh, 1960 not described.

Sphaerophoria laurae Goeldlin, 1989

not described.



Sphaerophoria loewi Zetterstedt, 1843

not described, but reported by Bartsch et al (2009a) as having been found on Phragmites. 


Sphaerophoria nigra Frey, 1945 not described.

Sphaerophoria pallidula Mutin, in Mutin and Barkalov, 1999 not described.

Sphaerophoria philanthus (Meigen), 1822

the larva of this species has not been described from European material. However, if it can be established that the N American species currently regarded as S.philanthus is indeed con-specific with its European counterpart, then descriptions and information about larval biology are available from N American literature. That literature is summarised by Barkemeyer (1994). The larvae of the N.American S.philanthus are aphid predators on crops like Zea mais and Brassica species - crops whose European distribution does not co-incide at all with the known distribution of S.philanthus in Europe. Bagachanova (1990) records rearing S.philanthus from larvae collected on Artemisia and Potentilla fruticosa. She also notes that this species overwinters both as larva and puparium. 

Sphaerophoria pictipes Boheman, 1863 not described.

Sphaerophoria potentillae Claussen, 1984 not described.

Sphaerophoria rueppelli (Wiedemann), 1830 larva described and figured by Bhatia (1939); biology detailed by Dusek and Laska (1974) and Marcos-Garcia (1981). The larvae are aphid-feeding on herbaceous plants, and have been recorded on Brassica, Chenopodium, Nicotiana, Onopordon and Sonchus. Amorós-Jiménez et al (2012) provide extensive information on the developmental biology of this species, showing that it can complete a generation (from egg-laying to eclosion of the adult) within 2 weeks, under laboratory conditions. They advocate use of S. rueppellii as a biocontrol agent of Mediterranean greenhouse-crop pest aphids. Lloret Climent et al (2014) regard S. rueppellii as “the main predatory syrphid in Mediterranean greenhouse crops”. Amorós-Jiménez et al (2014) provide information on captive breeding of S. rueppellii and show that the types of flower visited for food, by the females of one generation, affect the survival capabilities of the next generation.

Dusek & Laska (1960b) and Láska & Bicík, 2005

Dusek & Laska (1961)


Bhatia (1939)

Dusek & Laska (1960a)


Scott  (1939)
Sphaerophoria scripta (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Goeldlin (1974); aphid-feeding on herbaceous plants, including various crop plants e.g. Avena, Brassica, Cichorium, Lactuca, Triticum, Vicia. Overwintering in this species apparently occurs as a puparium (Kantyerina (1979) in the grass-root zone. Barkemeyer (1994) provides a survey of the literature on the biology of this species. The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). Coloured photos of larva and puparium are provided by Dussaix (2013), who also reports that duration of the puparial phase in this species is 1 week.

Dussaix, 2013


Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dusek & Laska (1961) and Dusek & Laska (1960a) 


Scott  (1939)  // Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974


Scott  (1939)

Scott  (1939)

Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974

Dussaix, 2013

Sphaerophoria shirchan Violovitsh, 1957

not described.



Sphaerophoria taeniata (Meigen), 1822

not described, but Hartmann and Duelli (1988) apparently hatched the species from a larva or puparium collected from Phragmites. 


Sphaerophoria virgata Goeldlin, 1974

not described.




Sphecomyia vespiformis (Gorski), 1852
not described, but according to Bartsch (1997) probably associated with sap-runs/lesions in the trunk of Populus tremula. 

Sphegina alaoglui Hayat, 1997 not described.

Sphegina atrolutea Lucas in Thompson & Torp, 1986

not described.



Sphegina clavata (Scopoli), 1763

not described, but this species has been reared from larvae found under the bark of a fallen branch of a deciduous shrub (probably Corylus) partly submerged in a small woodland stream, together with larvae of S. verecunda (van Eck, 2016b). Van Eck’s (2016) observations demonstrate that this species overwinters as a larva.

Sphegina clunipes (Fallen), 1816 described and figured by Hartley (1961), from larvae found in wet, sappy material beneath a patch of wet bark on a living Ulmus. Larvae have also been found under the bark of water-logged branches of various deciduous trees and in sap runs on Quercus, e.g. by Rotheray (1990a), indicating that this species is not dependent upon sap-runs for larval development. S.clunipes has also been collected in emergence traps installed over flushes under the tree canopy of an Alnus wood. Rotheray (1994) illustrates the larva in colour.

Rotheray (1994)


Hartley (1961)

Hartley (1961)



Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)



Hartley (1963)

Hartley (1961)


Dussaix (site web)

Sphegina cornifera Becker, 1921

not described.



Sphegina dogieli Stackelberg, 1953 not described.

Sphegina elegans Schummel, 1843 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), who found larvae in a sap run on the trunk of a living Ulmus. However, whether the sap-run microhabitat is typical or unusual for this species is uncertain. S.elegans has also been collected from emergence traps located in the bottom of a ditch containing only bare clay and small woody debris from overhanging trees (Fagus), and channelling a winter-flowing temporary stream.



Hartley (1961)

Hartley (1961)


Goudsmits, 2009

Sphegina latifrons Egger, 1865

not described.

Sphegina limbipennis Strobl, 1909

not described.



Sphegina montana Becker, 1921

not described.



Sphegina negrobovi Skufjin, 1976 not described.

Sphegina obscurifacies Stackelberg, 1956
Mutin (2001) states: “Larvae are found in decayed cambium of trunks and branches of Alnobetula hirsuta and Betula platyphylla, fallen in the water of forest streams”. He also says that they are usually found in small groups, that they overwinter as larvae and that the puparial phase lasts about a week. 

Sphegina platychira Szilady, 1937

not described, but adults have been collected from emergence traps placed in montane flushes (L.Verlinden, pers.comm.). 


Sphegina sibirica Stackelberg, 1953

not described; females have been seen ovipositing on a cut Picea trunk lying across a  stream, oviposition occurring toward the underside of the log, where it reached the stream-bank. 

Sphegina spheginea (Zetterstedt), 1838

not described.



Sphegina sublatifrons Vujic, 1990 not described.

Sphegina varifacies Kassebeer, 1991

adults have been collected from emergence traps sited over wet mud and plant debris bordering springs (J.-J.Bignon, pers.comm.). 


Sphegina verecunda Collin, 1937 larva described and figured by Hartley (1961), who found larvae in sap run exudate on Ulmus. Also reared by van Eck (2016b), from larvae found under the bark of a fallen branch, probably of Corylus, partly submerged in a small, woodland stream. Van Eck’s (2016) observations demonstrate that this species overwinters as a larva.


Hartley (1961)

Hartley (1961)


Dussaix (site web)

Sphiximorpha euprosopa (Loew), 1869 not described.

Sphiximorpha garibaldii Rondani, 1860

undescribed, but quite possibly associated with subcortical sap seepages caused by the tunnelling activities of larvae of saproxylic cetoniids, which inhabit the trunk wood of old, living Quercus. 

Sphiximorpha petronillae Rondani, 1850
not described; females have been observed laying eggs in the bark of old, living Querus cerris inhabitied by colonies of the saproxylic ant Liometopum microcephalum, the presence of which indicates that the trunk is hollow. 
Sphiximorpha subsessilis (Illiger in Rossi), 1807 described and figured by Rotheray et al (2006), from larvae collected from "exuding sap at the base of an Abies alba tree". This species almost certainly also uses sap runs/wet, under-bark cavities on the trunks of both old deciduous trees (e.g. Populus, Alnus, Salix) and old evergreen oak (Q.suber) as larval microhabitat. Ricarte and Marcos-Garcia (2010) report emergence of this species from a trunk cavity in an old, live tree of Fraxinus angustifolia. Doczkal (pers.comm.) has observed oviposition of this species in cracks in the bark immediately above a sap run in a live Ulmus laevis. Schmid (1993) observed oviposition along the edge of a sap-run on the trunk of Aesculus hippocastanum, a process which took several hours. Dussaix (2013) confirms that the larva overwinters in this species, reports that the puparial phase lasts 3 weeks and provides a coloured photo of larvae in situ and also a photo of the puparium.
+ Dussaix, 2007

 

Dussaix, 2007


Dussaix (site web)

 

Rotheray et al. (2006)

Rotheray et al. (2006)


Dussaix, 2007

Rotheray et al. (2006)


Spilomyia digitata (Rondani), 1865 larva described and figured by Rotheray et al (2006), from larvae collected from rot-holes at the roots of live Fraxinus angustifolius, Quercus faginea and Q.pyrenaica. Sánchez-Galván et al (2014) provide information suggesting that a pre-requisite for development of larvae of S. digitata in a trunk cavity may be the presence there of the faeces of saproxylic beetle larvae. Their work on the relationships between trunk-cavity inhabiting syrphids and saproxylic beetles was focussed on the Iberian chafer Cetonia aurataeformis, whose larval faeces are known to be rich in accessible nutrients (Micó et al, 2011).


 


Rotheray et al. (2006)

 



Rotheray et al. (2006)
Spilomyia diophthalma (L.), 1758
undescribed, but probably in rot holes in Populus tremula (Bartsch et al, 2009b). 
Spilomyia graciosa Violovitsh, 1985 not described.

Spilomyia longicornis Loew, 1872
larva reared in N America by Maier (1978, 1982) from "wet detritus along wall of treeholes in live Quercus", together with larvae of Mallota and Somula species. These tree holes are described as holding more than 3 litres of debris and containing standing water for more than 2 months of the year (Maier, 1978).
+ Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)




Rotheray & Gilbert (1999)


Spilomyia manicata (Rondani), 1865

not described; Ahnlund (pers.comm.) has collected females of this species from a small trap attached close to rot-holes on the trunk of live Populus tremula. This species has also been hatched from a puparium found in a rot-hole in Acer (van Steenis, 2000). 

Spilomyia maxima Sack, 1910 not described.

Spilomyia saltuum (Fabricius), 1794

not described.



Spilomyia triangulata van Steenis, 2000

not described.




Syritta flaviventris Macquart, 1842 larva described and figured by Perez-Banon and Marcos-Garcia (2000), from material collected in the field from decaying vegetable matter - Opuntia platyclades. Larvae were found in decaying platyclades both on the ground and still attached to the cactus. Pupariation occurred within the tissues of the platyclades.


Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-García (2000)

Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-García (2000)

 

Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-García (2000)

Syritta pipiens (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Heiss (1938) and Hartley (1961) and illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994), Bartsch et al (2009a) and Dussaix (2013); an inhabitant of various types of moist, decaying, vegetable matter, including cow dung and garden compost heaps. Under some conditions, the larva can apparently also develop successfully in mammalian corpses (Magni et al, 2013). Dussaix (2013) confirms the larva overwinters, shows a puparium in colour and reports the puparial phase as lasting for 3 weeks.

Dussaix, 2013


Smith, 1989

Dusek & Laska (1960a) 



Hodson (1931) and  Morgan, 1970


Bartsch et al (2009)

Heiss, 1938 and Hennig, 1952

Hartley (1961)


Dusek & Laska (1960a)


















Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-García (2000)




Heiss, 1938




Hodson (1931) // Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-García (2000)

 


Hartley (1961) // Dusek & Laska (1961)

Metcalf (1916)

Hodson (1931)

Pérez-Bañón & Marcos-García (2000)


Dussaix, 2013
Syritta vittata Portschinsky, 1875 not described.


Syrphocheilosia claviventris (Strobl), 1909

not described.




Syrphus admirandus Goeldlin, 1996 not described.

Syrphus attenuatus Hine, 1922 not described.

Syrphus auberti Goeldlin, 1996

not described.



Syrphus nitidifrons Becker, 1921

not described.



Syrphus rectus (Osten-Sacken), 1877

not described. Short and Bergh (20005) illustrate the eggs of N American S.rectus, where the larva of this species is apparently a significant predator of the aphids on fruit trees, including the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum).

Syrphus ribesii (L.), 1758 larva described and figured by Dusek & Laska (1964); aphid feeding on various herbaceous plants (e.g. Carduus, Eryngium, Sonchus, umbellifers), including some crops (Beta, Solanum, Triticum, Vicia, Zea), bushes (e.g. Rubus spp.), shrubs and trees. The larva of this species apparently occurs in a number of distinct colour forms, as illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994) and Bartsch et al (2009a). A coloured photo of the puparium is provided by Dussaix (2013). Egg: Chandler (1968). The morphology of the chorion of the egg is figured by Kuznetzov (1988). Laboratory culture detailed by Bombosch (1957). It is unclear whether this species overwinters as a larva or a puparium. According to Dussaix (2013), summer larvae